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  • genes
  • A team of researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has uncovered a set of genes that are turned on, or expressed, at high levels only in the blood vessels that feed tumors in mice and humans. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanisms and time of occurrence of hCONDELs are not entirely understood but given that conserved non-coding sequences play a major developmental role through regulation of genes, their loss in regions of deletions, it is expected that their loss in hCONDELs will result in developmental consequences that can be observed in human-specific traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • A humanized mouse is a mouse carrying functioning human genes, cells, tissues, and/or organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two mouse strains, called MITRG and MISTRG, were described in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked into their respective mouse loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later research found that the genes responsible for these abnormalities also influenced breast cancer development in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1982, Roel Nusse and Harold Varmus infected mice with mouse mammary tumor virus in order to mutate mouse genes to see which mutated genes could cause breast tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1961, Mary Lyon proposed the random inactivation of one female X chromosome to explain the mottled phenotype of female mice heterozygous for coat color genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, some human genes may be expressed only during development as an embryo or fetus, which might be difficult to study for ethical reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leibel's co-discovery at Rockefeller University of the hormone leptin, and cloning of the leptin and leptin receptor genes, has had a major role in the area of understanding human obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having encountered obesity in children as a medical doctor in the 1970s, Leibel believed that biology played a stronger role than "will power" in human obesity and joined Jules Hirsch in theorizing about the psychobiology of obesity - a belief that body weight was the result of complex interactions between genes and the environment rather than a simple matter of free will. (wikipedia.org)
  • Takahashi used forward mutagenesis screening of mice treated with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea to create and identify mutations in key genes that broadly affect circadian activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of CLOCK-BMAL to an E-box promoter element activates transcription of clock genes such as per1, 2, and 3 and tim in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • livers
  • One way to get around the altered properties of the stranded cells is to populate mouse livers with human hepatocytes in the hope of creating a natural environment, which is exactly what researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies did. (scienceblog.com)
  • Ensembl
  • For example, the RefSeq database contains transcript and protein sequence from many different species, and the Ensembl system comprehensively maps this evidence to human and several other genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Often, their behavior does not reflect their biological function within an entire organ or organism, which, for example, turns studying human liver cells into a big challenge. (scienceblog.com)
  • Within three months of transplantation, up to 20 percent of the mouse liver is repopulated by human hepatocytes. (scienceblog.com)
  • Function
  • Rodents are often used as model organisms to study the efficacy and toxicity of drugs," says lead author Karl-Dimiter Bissig, M.D. Ph.D., a postdoctoral researcher in the Laboratory of Genetics, "but mouse and rat hepatocytes may function in very different ways when it comes to metabolism of drugs. (scienceblog.com)
  • female mice
  • siRNA silencing of estrogen receptor- α expression specifically in medial preoptic area neurons abolishes maternal care in female mice," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 109, no. 40, pp. 16324-16329, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Genetic
  • Genetic differences between humans and mice that may account for these different aging rates include differences in efficiency of DNA repair, antioxidant defenses, energy metabolism, proteostasis maintenance, and recycling mechanisms such as autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1982
  • 1982). "Amino acid sequence of galactosamine-containing glycopeptides in the hinge region of a human immunoglobulin D". Biochem. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • Such humanized mouse models may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • Over the course of eight years, Leibel's work ranged from studies of glycerol to the development of a radioisotpic technique for analysis of free fatty acid re-esterification in human adipose tissue to the metabolic characterization of obesity. (wikipedia.org)