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  • profiles
  • Also, T2D patients and individuals with increased risk of the disease display differential DNA methylation profiles and plasticity compared to controls. (frontiersin.org)
  • tissues
  • Recent data demonstrate highly significant correlations between DNA methylation and the most important risk factors of T2D, including age and body mass index, in blood and human tissues relevant to insulin resistance and T2D. (frontiersin.org)
  • Accordingly, the novel clues to DNA methylation fingerprints in blood and tissues with deteriorated metabolic capacity indicate that blood-borne epigenetic biomarkers of T2D progression might become a reality. (frontiersin.org)
  • This Review will address the most recent associations between DNA methylation and diabetes-related traits in human tissues and blood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Methylation of cytosine residues in DNA (DNA methylation) is the most studied epigenetic trait, and recent data show significant influences of age and lifestyle related risk factors such as overweight and physical activity on site-specific DNA methylation in blood and tissues relevant for T2D ( 11 , 14 , 16 - 20 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • proteins
  • In general, DNA methylation affects gene expression in two ways: (i) directly, by altering the binding sites of transcription factors, or (ii) indirectly, via recruitment of proteins that recognize and bind to the methylated DNA and in turn modulate gene expression. (hindawi.com)
  • Methylation, one such chemical modification, adds a single carbon and three hydrogen atoms (called a methyl group) to other molecules, such as DNA, RNA and proteins. (medindia.net)
  • Methylation of amino acids in the formation of proteins leads to more diversity of possible amino acids and therefore more diversity of function. (sinobiological.com)
  • These areas are enriched in H3K9 methylation and marked by the presence of structural proteins such as HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1), which contribute to maintain high levels of condensation that play mainly structural roles in the organization of chromosomes. (hindawi.com)
  • abnormalities
  • This paper attempts to review genetic changes attributed to abnormalities in DNA methylation which in turn activate tumoriogenic potential of cells further leading to cancer. (omicsonline.org)
  • More specifically, this invention relies on the discovery that the maspin gene is differentially methylated in fetal DNA and in maternal DNA and provides these new diagnostic methods, which distinguish fetal DNA from maternal DNA and detect prenatal disorders based on abnormalities in fetal DNA level and methylation status. (google.com)
  • promoter
  • We contrast these findings with the discovery, in hexaploid persimmon, of an additional layer of regulation in the form of DNA methylation of the MeGI promoter associated with the production of both male and female flowers in genetically male trees. (plantcell.org)
  • Consistent with this model, developing male buds exhibited higher methylation levels across the MeGI promoter than developing female flowers from either monoecious or female trees. (plantcell.org)
  • regulation
  • Interestingly, comparative analysis of the DNA methylation profiles revealed that both rice indica and japonica subspecies showed robust fluctuant profiles of DNA methylation levels in embryo and endosperm across seed development, with the highest methylation level at 6 d after pollination (2 d after pollination of endosperm in japonica as well), indicating that a complex and finely controlled methylation pattern is closely associated with seed development regulation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • bases
  • 2. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an oligonucleotide consisting of SEQ ID NO:1439, wherein at least one of the cytosine bases in said oligonucleotide is 5-methylcytosine. (google.com)
  • 3. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an oligonucleotide consisting of SEQ ID NO:1439, wherein all of said cytosine bases in said oligonucleotide are 5-methylcytosine. (google.com)
  • stages
  • To determine and investigate the functions of the dynamic DNA methylome during seed development, we profiled the DNA methylation genome wide in a series of developmental stages of rice ( Oryza sativa ) embryo and endosperm by methylcytosine immunoprecipitation followed by Illumina sequencing. (plantphysiol.org)
  • significantly
  • These CD8-cell subsets were significantly associated with DNA methylation age. (natap.org)
  • Even after 1 and 2 years of ART, all four CD8-cell subsets remained elevated compared to the HIV-negative group, and all remained significantly associated with DNA methylation age. (natap.org)