• Through the use of radioactively labeled methyl isocyanate (MIC), the deposition, penetration, and clearance of this highly reactive compound in the airway at the tissue and cellular levels have been directly examined. (elsevier.com)
  • In 1993, fourteen people were made ill from routine application of methyl bromide in strawberry fields adjacent to subdivisions in Castroville, California. (ewg.org)
  • In 1995, residents of this same subdivision were poisoned again, after methyl bromide was applied to the same fields. (ewg.org)
  • In both cases, injury occurred even though all required actions to reduce human exposure to methyl bromide were employed. (ewg.org)
  • Since 1985 more than 1,600 Californians have been poisoned and hundreds more evacuated from schools and homes due to methyl bromide exposure (Brodberg et al. (ewg.org)
  • 1992). Methyl bromide is an extremely toxic pesticide, heavily used in the production of strawberries, flowers, and other high value specialty crops. (ewg.org)
  • Our analysis of pesticide use data from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation shows that at least 826 elementary schools and day care centers were within 2 miles of 10,000 pounds or more methyl bromide use in 1992. (ewg.org)
  • Ten schools were within 2 miles of 100,000 pounds of methyl bromide use in that same year, and 321 elementary schools and day care centers were within 1.5 miles of 10,000 pounds of methyl bromide use in 1992. (ewg.org)
  • Two schools in Union City, in Alameda county, were within 1 mile of more than 40,000 pounds of methyl bromide use, followed by three schools in Ventura county within 1 mile of between 18,000 and 41,000 pounds of use. (ewg.org)
  • In 1992, Ventura and Monterey counties had 131 and 112 elementary schools and day care centers respectively within 2 miles of 10,000 pounds or more methyl bromide use. (ewg.org)
  • These top five elementary schools were within 2 miles of between 140,000 and 250,000 pounds of methyl bromide use in 1992. (ewg.org)
  • Using one ton as an indicator of heavy use, Orange County had the most schools and day care facilities close to heavy methyl bromide use, with 83 elementary schools (with enrollment of 45,000), plus 212 day care centers within 2 miles of 2,000 pounds or more of methyl bromide applications. (ewg.org)
  • This close proximity to major applications of methyl bromide raises serious questions about the safety and exposure of infants and children to this highly toxic pesticide. (ewg.org)
  • Scientists first began experimenting with methyl iodide in the mid-1990s as a replacement for methyl bromide, which was being phased out because it was found to damage the ozone layer. (sfgate.com)
  • That realization motivated Laskin and a group of PVFT members to become part of a broad coalition that has fought methyl iodide and methyl bromide use for several years. (peoplesworld.org)
  • It was a replacement for methyl bromide , whose use was banned in 1990 by the Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances. (peoplesworld.org)
  • Methyl bromide attacks the ozone layer in the atmosphere. (peoplesworld.org)
  • Despite the ban, however, in 1999 over 70,000 tons of methyl bromide were still being used worldwide as a soil fumigant, mostly in the U.S. (peoplesworld.org)
  • The Secretary , upon request of State, local, or tribal authorities, shall determine whether methyl bromide treatments or applications required by State, local, or tribal authorities to prevent the introduction, establishment, or spread of plant pests (including diseases) or noxious weeds should be authorized as an official control or official requirement. (cornell.edu)
  • The Secretary , in consultation with State, local and tribal authorities, shall establish a program to identify alternatives to methyl bromide for treatment and control of plant pests and weeds. (cornell.edu)
  • Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of Methyl-DMA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bhopal tragedy's health effects: a review of methyl isocyanate toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • All azinphos-methyl liquids with a concentration greater than 13.5% are classified as Restricted Use Pesticides (RUP) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) because of the inhalation hazard and acute toxicity they present, as well as their potential adverse effects on mammalian species, birds, and aquatic organisms. (orst.edu)
  • This discharge caused large-scale human methyl mercury exposure and toxicity during the 1950s and 1960s and led to our present-day appreciation of mercury's environmental cycling, biomethylation, and food chain transfer. (toxipedia.org)
  • This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of halauxifen-methyl and its metabolite, XDE-729 acid, in or on multiple commodities which are identified and discussed later in this document. (federalregister.gov)
  • Little information is available regarding Sodium Methyl Cocoyl Taurate, but the Cosmetics Database notes that it is the sodium salt of the coconut fatty acid amide of N-methyltaurine. (truthinaging.com)
  • No. 3,321,517 discloses the preparation of the lactone perfluoro(3,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,4-dioxane), its hydrolysis to perfluoro(2-methyl-5-oxo-3-oxahexanoic)acid hydrate and the reaction of the hydrate with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce perfluoro(2-methyl-5-oxo-3-oxahexanoic)acid. (google.co.uk)
  • ABT ) today announced data from a Phase 2b study which suggests that bardoxolone methyl, an investigational treatment for chronic kidney disease (CKD), may reduce the stage of CKD and improve estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and other measures of kidney function in the majority of patients receiving the drug. (prnewswire.com)
  • Approximately 60 percent of the patients receiving bardoxolone methyl experienced a reduction in the classification of the severity of their disease after 24 weeks of treatment. (prnewswire.com)
  • Additionally, only four percent of patients in each bardoxolone methyl group experienced a worsening of CKD stage compared to 13 percent in the placebo group. (prnewswire.com)
  • These encouraging results suggest that bardoxolone methyl has the potential to change the treatment landscape of chronic kidney disease and offer new hope for these patients and their families. (prnewswire.com)
  • The multi-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial enrolled 227 CKD patients with type 2 diabetes who were randomized to receive once-daily doses of placebo or 25, 75 or 150 mg doses of bardoxolone methyl. (prnewswire.com)
  • At week 24, patients treated with bardoxolone methyl experienced a mean increase in estimated GFR of over 10 mL/min/1.72m2, compared with no change in the placebo group. (prnewswire.com)
  • Approximately three-quarters of bardoxolone methyl-treated patients experienced an improvement in eGFR of 10 percent or more, including one-quarter who saw an improvement of 50 percent or more compared to less than two percent of patients on placebo. (prnewswire.com)
  • The frequency of adverse events was higher in the bardoxolone methyl group compared to the placebo group, with most events mild to moderate in severity. (prnewswire.com)
  • The most frequently reported adverse event in the bardoxolone methyl group was muscle spasm. (prnewswire.com)
  • We are very pleased to see that bardoxolone methyl reduced the stage of disease and improved measures of kidney function in the majority of patients receiving the drug,' said Warren Huff , CEO of Reata. (prnewswire.com)
  • Bardoxolone methyl is an antioxidant inflammation modulator (AIM) that activates Nrf2, thereby inducing the transcription of genes that decrease the level of oxidative stress and suppress important inflammatory mediators. (prnewswire.com)
  • In two Phase 2a studies, bardoxolone methyl was shown to increase measures of kidney function in patients with moderate to severe CKD and Type 2 diabetes. (prnewswire.com)
  • We now review the biological bases of oxidative stress and its role in kidney diseases, with focus on diabetic nephropathy, as well as the role of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway and recent clinical trials targeting this pathway with bardoxolone methyl. (hindawi.com)
  • 2001)‎. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. (who.int)
  • I am a toy inventor with a prototype that uses methyl oleate in a vessel. (bio.net)
  • Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the final reaction of the energy conserving pathway of methanogenic archaea in which methylcoenzyme M and coenzyme B are converted to methane and the heterodisulfide CoM-S-S-CoB. (rcsb.org)
  • a) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction that occurs when 1 mol of methyl myristate, C 13 H 27 CO 2 CH 3 ( ℓ ), is burned, forming CO 2 (g) and H 2 O(g). (bartleby.com)
  • Hmm for some reason I got the reaction to go using the hydrochloride salt of methyl amine w/ some DIEA. (physicsforums.com)
  • It undergoes Electrophilic aromatic substitution, and the nitration of methyl benzoate illustrates this type of reaction. (educationindex.com)
  • Both the N-methyl and N-ethyl analogues of 3-piperidyl benzilate are, however, Schedule I controlled drugs. (rug.nl)
  • I want to get the latest chemistry news from C&EN in my inbox every week. (acs.org)
  • The Good Scents Company: Methyl anthranilate The Japan Food Chemical Research Foundation http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc1403015 An Introduction to Perfumery by Curtis & Williams 2nd Edition, 2009, ISBN 978-0-9608752-8-3, ISBN 978-1-870228-24-4 The Chemistry of Fragrances: From Perfumer to Consumer, ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myer Kessler, Harold Ring, Ralph Trambarulo, Walter Gordy "Microwave Spectra and Molecular Structures of Methyl Cyanide and Methyl Isocyanide" Phys. (wikipedia.org)
  • People working in facilities that produce or use methyl isocyanate have the highest risk of being exposed to this chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • Epigenesis in Humans: Can Maternal Methyl-donor-deficient Diets Induce Epigenetic Alterations in Their Offspring? (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Methyl isocyanate has been found in at least 1 of the 1,585 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the U.S. EPA have not classified methyl isocyanate as to its carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)