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  • Measures
  • Using a repeated-measures design on a large study sample, our purpose was to determine whether ovarian cycle-phase affects maximal exercise performance (V̇ O 2 max ) in women who had lived at an altitude of 3600 m since birth or early childhood. (biologists.org)
  • include
  • Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. (springer.com)
  • proteins
  • Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is a technique for sorting out the cells based on the differences that can be detected by light scatter (e.g. cell size) or fluorescence emission (by penetrated DNA, RNA, proteins, antigens). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • and annotations homology to proteins involved in cell-cycle control. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrochemical cell
  • The main function of a separator is to keep the two electrodes apart to prevent electrical short circuits while also allowing the transport of ionic charge carriers that are needed to close the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "photovoltaic" comes from the Greek φῶς (phōs) meaning "light", and from "volt", the unit of electro-motive force, the volt, which in turn comes from the last name of the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta, inventor of the battery (electrochemical cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1970s, research on the mitosis of polynucleated cells was done. (wikipedia.org)
  • In case of dividing cells, cIAP1 is released into the cytosol early in mitosis, then reaccumulated in nucleus in late anaphase and in telophase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothesis that shortened cell cycles can cause repression of transcription is supported by the observation that mitosis causes transcription to cease. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Test for cell membrane damage, either by measuring the leakage of cellular enzymes or staining with membrane-impermeable dyes. (abcam.com)
  • During the separation, the cell only needs to be suspended in a buffer solution and enter a centrifuge, the whole processes does not involve any chemical (e.g. staining) and physical (e.g. attachment of antibody, lyses of cell membrane) effect on the cells, so the cell will remain unchanged before and after the separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most fluorescent DNA dyes (one of exceptions is Hoechst 33342) are not plasma membrane permeant, that is, unable to pass through an intact cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here enucleated recipient cells are treated with cytochalasin B. Cytochalasin B makes the cytoplasm of the oocytes more fluid and makes it possible to aspirate the nuclear genome of the oocyte within a small vesicle of plasma membrane into a micro-needle. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Lymphocyte multiplication can be induced in vitro by mitogens or specific antigens, and is usually measured using isotopic methods involving tritiated thymidine. (hindawi.com)
  • We applied this method to lymphocytes from 113 individuals, to evaluate lymphocyte proliferation after stimulation in vitro by a mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA) or a recall antigen (tetanus toxoid), using a kinetic approach with four points sequential measurements of the S and G2 phases over six days of culture. (hindawi.com)
  • These data suggest that flow cytometric assessment of the S phase could be a useful alternative to isotopic methods measuring lymphocyte reactivity in vitro . (hindawi.com)
  • Similar cell cycle compartments are also recognized by multiparameter analysis that includes measurement of expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1, each in relation to DNA content Concurrent measurement of DNA content and of incorporation of DNA precursor 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) by flow cytometry is an especially useful assay, that has been widely used in analysis of the cell cycle in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitotic
  • In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into three periods: interphase, the mitotic (M) phase, and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cells enter the G0 phase semi-permanently and are considered post-mitotic, e.g., some liver, kidney, and stomach cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concurrent measurement of cellular DNA and RNA content, or DNA susceptibility to denaturation at low pH using the metachromatic dye acridine orange, reveals the G1Q, G1A, and G1B cell cycle compartments and also makes it possible to discriminate between S, G2 and mitotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The multinucleated cells probably arise from failure of mitotic control, leading to variations in size and shape of interphase nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational Methods
  • Using comparative genomics and improved computational methods, a radically minimized form of the RNase P RNA, dubbed "Type T", has been found in all complete genomes in the crenarchaeal phylogenetic family Thermoproteaceae, including species in the genera Pyrobaculum, Caldivirga and Vulcanisaeta. (wikipedia.org)
  • phases
  • Cell cycle analysis by DNA content measurement is a method that most frequently employs flow cytometry to distinguish cells in different phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the DNA content doubles during the S phase, the DNA content (and thereby intensity of fluorescence) of cells in the G0 phase and G1 phase (before S), in the S phase, and in the G2 phase and M phase (after S) identifies the cell cycle phase position in the major phases (G0/G1 versus S versus G2/M phase) of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellular DNA content of individual cells is often plotted as their frequency histogram to provide information about relative frequency (percentage) of cells in the major phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorambucil alkylates and cross-links DNA during all phases of the cell cycle, inducing DNA damage via three different methods of covalent adduct generation with double-helical DNA: Attachment of alkyl groups to DNA bases, resulting in the DNA being fragmented by repair enzymes in their attempts to replace the alkylated bases, preventing DNA synthesis and RNA transcription from the affected DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • The self renewal of cells is a process of cell proliferation which includes nuclear division and cytokinesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been shown that human nuclear RNase P is required for the normal and efficient transcription of various small noncoding RNAs, such as tRNA, 5S rRNA, SRP RNA and U6 snRNA genes, which are transcribed by RNA polymerase III, one of three major nuclear RNA polymerases in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appeared that these cells were created through progressive nuclear addition instead of nuclear division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The separate nuclei are bound by a nuclear bridge and in binucleated cells the centrioles are doubled. (wikipedia.org)
  • deprivation
  • This effect of nutritional deprivation can be restored by their addition by which time the cell synchrony occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • Like cellular slime molds, it can release chemical stress signals that cause the cells to aggregate into a swarm which allows the newly formed superorganism to feed on much larger animals and produce a fruiting body that releases spores for reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiparameter analysis of the cell cycle includes, in addition to measurement of cellular DNA content, other cell cycle related constituents/features. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, accurate measurement of gene expression in individual cells allows researchers to better understand these critical aspects of cellular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • There are two instruments in use based on its principle: a) Flow cytometer b) Fluorescence-activated cell sorter The cells can be separated by blocking metabolic reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fluorescence intensity of the stained cells correlates with the amount of DNA they contain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is important because a doublet of two G0/G1 cells has the same total content of DNA and thus the same fluorescence intensity as a single G2/M cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Cell fate determination by transcription factors. (springer.com)
  • For example, early study of gene expression in individual cells in fruit fly embryos allowed scientists to discover regularized patterns or gradients of specific gene transcription during different stages of growth, allowing for a more detailed understanding of development at the level of location and time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause of this silencing could be due to several factors: chromatin modifications leading to repression, lack of adequate transcription machinery, or lack of time in which significant transcription can occur due to the shortened cell cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence for the first method was provided by Newport and Kirschner's experiments showing that nucleocytoplasmic ratio plays a role in activating zygotic transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, evidence has been shown that transcription of a subset of genes in Drosophila is delayed by one cell cycle in haploid embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokinesis
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another group found that CB inhibits the ability of HeLa cells to undergo cytokinesis by decomposition of the contractile ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptional
  • Compared to naked ATRA, ATRA-ND significantly stimulated transcriptional activity of RARA in a model carcinoma cell line. (beatingcancercenter.com)
  • The next G1 would then be a critical period to initiate new transcriptional programs, which may not be feasible if the cell rapidly proceeds through this stage into S phase. (pnas.org)
  • 1993
  • Hewitson, L.C., Leese, H.J. (1993) Energy metabolism of the trophectoderm and inner cell mass of the mouse blastocyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Mouse Genome 430 2.0 microarray was used to detect the gene expression profiles of the model, and results showed remarkable changes in the expressions of 64 cell cycle genes and 960 genes associated with other physiological activity during the cell cycle of NIH3T3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ranked or unranked lists of genes identified by each method on each data set. (dtu.dk)
  • Ranked and unranked list of genes identified by the various methods included in the Benchmark. (dtu.dk)
  • These Excel spreadsheets contain many features useful for looking at the cell cycle genes. (stanford.edu)
  • A Word document detailing all the genes that were previously identified by traditional methods as cell cycle regulated, with the relevant list of references. (stanford.edu)
  • Cells with identical genomes may vary in the expression of their genes due to differences in their specialized function in the body, their timepoint in the cell cycle, their environment, and also noise and stochastic factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytometry
  • DNA-staining dyes are commonly used in flow cytometry to measure the DNA content in cell populations and assay for cell cycle state. (abcam.com)
  • Ghost Cytometry is an image-free visual system enabled with artificial intelligence to quickly identify and sort cells. (phys.org)
  • A team from a scientific start-up company and academic researchers has invented a new cell identification and sorting system called Ghost Cytometry. (phys.org)
  • Ghost Cytometry will help researchers who need to classify cells in the lab, and benefit clinicians and patients who need fast and accurate isolation and diagnosis of cell samples," said Associate Professor Sadao Ota from the University of Tokyo. (phys.org)
  • In an article published in the June 15, 2018, issue of Science , the researchers demonstrated that Ghost Cytometry can sort at least two different types of cells with similar sizes and structures with very few misidentified cells. (phys.org)
  • Ghost Cytometry can identify cells at a rate of more than 10,000 cells per second and sort cells into appropriate groups at a rate of multiple thousands of cells per second. (phys.org)
  • In Ghost Cytometry, cells rush one at a time though a narrow channel underneath a single pixel detector camera that senses the fluorescent light waves emitted by each cell. (phys.org)
  • The machine learning system does not need images to analyze the cells, but if researchers require images for additional analysis, the single pixel detector camera does capture enough information to digitally reconstruct traditional, two-dimensional pictures of cells that pass through the cytometry system if researchers require images for additional analysis. (phys.org)
  • The current Ghost Cytometry method involves staining cells with fluorescent dyes that naturally color any cell type in a unique way. (phys.org)
  • mechanism
  • In the case of abnormal heat generation within the battery cell, the separator provides a shutdown mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Cell cycle analysis is important for cancer research. (mdpi.com)
  • We present herein a novel method for accurate cell cycle analysis. (mdpi.com)
  • 2015. Computational analysis of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in single-cell RNA-sequencing data reveals hidden subpopulations of cells. (springer.com)
  • For the analysis of cell proliferation within tissue samples, or sometimes within cell culture, it is common to use antibodies to stain for the presence of Ki67, PCNA, or MCM-2. (abcam.com)
  • Cell cycle analysis was first described in 1969 at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory by a group from the University of California using the Feulgen staining technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first step in preparing cells for cell cycle analysis is permeabilisation of the cells' plasma membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since cells and especially fixed cells tend to stick together, cell aggregates have to be excluded from analysis through a process called doublet discrimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such differences can be detected using modern single-cell analysis techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if half the cells of a particular group are expressing high levels of a given gene, and the rest are expressing low levels, results from a population-wide analysis may appear as if all cells are expressing a medium level of the given gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • BioUML Server - which offers access to data and analysis methods installed server-side for BioUML clients (workbench and web edition) over the Internet. (wikipedia.org)
  • homeostasis
  • cIAP1 has an important role on the maintenance of endothelial cells and blood vessel homeostasis during the development of the vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Recent advances in high-resolution epigenome profiling, single-cell transcriptomics, and cell cycle reporter systems have provided novel insights into the cell cycle regulation of cell fate determination. (springer.com)
  • These findings will provide insight into our understanding of cell cycle regulation of cell fate determination in this field, and may facilitate its potential application in translational medicine. (springer.com)
  • inhibitors
  • Two types of metabolic blockades are in use: During the S phase of cell cycle, DNA synthesis can be inhibited by using inhibitors such as thymidine, aminopterin, hydroxyurea and cytosine arabinoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hewitson, L.C., Martin, K.L., Leese, H.J. (1996) Effects of metabolic inhibitors on mouse preimplantation embryo development and the energy metabolism of isolated inner cell masses. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • These assays monitor the growth rate of a cell population, detect daughter cells in a growing population, or analyze the proportions of cells in different stages of the cell cycle. (abcam.com)
  • Measure the markers present in different types of cell death. (abcam.com)
  • Current methods to identify different types of cells rely on microscope images of the cells, which are then classified by either a computer image recognition program or human observer. (phys.org)
  • Sometimes there are no stains, dyes, or other biomarkers that can effectively label different types of cells or different activation states of the same cell. (phys.org)
  • The observation that an inhibitor of TGF-β signaling, SnoN, is a substrate of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in G1 indicates that different cell-cycle states may differ in their responsiveness to exogenous signals ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • This method enables scientists to separate different cells with different sizes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since cell size is correlated with cell cycle stages this method also allows the separation of cells at different stages of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key concept is that larger cells tend to stay within the flowing buffer solution while smaller cells will be washed away follow the buffer solution (different sedimentation property within the buffer solution), and cells will have different sedimentation properties in different cell cycle stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • It cannot separate different types of cells which have similar sedimentation properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within a single human, individual cells typically have identical genomes, though there are interesting exceptions, such as B-cells, which have variation in their DNA enabling them to generate different antibodies to bind to the variety of pathogens that can attack the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation
  • Activation with a recall antigen significantly induced increasing S phase cell proportions up to day six. (hindawi.com)
  • stages
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early cleavage stages of embryogenesis, rapid divisions occur synchronously and there are no "gap" stages in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protocols
  • Intertek is the download cell cycle oscillators: methods and protocols percent with deceptively 42,000 lessons in 1,000 alternatives in over 100 interventions. (rmbsales.com)
  • CV concepts as a download cell cycle oscillators: methods and protocols of notification faith helped described from medieval to challenging way hostname to visit unintended source making during optical uncertainty. (rmbsales.com)
  • flow
  • Daughter cells receive half of the dye of parent cells and assays are analyzed on a flow cytometer. (abcam.com)
  • The circuit then sends an electrical signal to push cells into the correct sorting pathway for their type as they flow past. (phys.org)
  • The basic principle of separating the cells inside CCE is the balance between centripetal and the counter flow drag force. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then when the flow rate of the buffer solution increases, the solution tends to push the cells towards the middle of the CCE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally the CCE rely on centrifugal force and the counter flow drag force to separate the cells, so the speed of separation is fast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photovoltaics are best known as a method for generating electric power by using solar cells to convert energy from the sun into a flow of electrons by the photovoltaic effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Population-level views of cells can offer a distorted view of the data by averaging out the properties of distinct subsets of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • quiescent
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • We further tested this method using the clinical anticancer agents crizotinib and taxol, and the results clearly illustrated that crizotinib and taxol arrested Jurkat cells in G0 and M phase, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • The proportion of cells in S phase after PHA stimulation was significantly higher than in controls overall and as early as on day three of the culture. (hindawi.com)
  • The S phase and the M phase of NIH3T3 cell cycle were detected by immunocytochemistry and morphologic observation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These hypermutation-associated DSBs are abundant in the G2 (postreplicative) phase of the cell cycle, and thus it has been suggested that they are repaired by homologous recombination between sister chromatids ( 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • G0 is a resting phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle starts with this phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase, a cell has three options. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), the precursor whose detection offers certain advantages over BrdU, has now become the preferred methodology do detect DNA replicating (S-phase) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ubication of cIAP1 is diverse depending on the phase of the living cycle of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • Studies that examine the growth rate of microorganisms (in other words: how fast they divide to create new cells) require cell counting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscope
  • A counting chamber,(also known as hemocytometer), is a microscope slide that is especially designed to enable cell counting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Looking at the sample under the microscope, the researcher uses the grid to manually count the number of cells in a certain area of known size. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction, similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation that is also associated with DNA transfer between cells leading to homologous recombinational repair of DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • considerably
  • They are important to batteries because their structure and properties considerably affect the battery performance, including the batteries energy and power densities, cycle life, and safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Cells vary in the metabolites they contain, which are the intermediary compounds and end products of complex biochemical reactions that sustain the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial cells
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • requires the medium to be formulated for this purpose), or the appearance of turbidity (cloudiness indicating light scattering by bacterial cells) indicates that sterilization was not achieved and the sterilization cycle may need revision or improvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • organism
  • Among the many methods used to genetically modify an organism is gene insertion, which is injecting an organism with a gene it does not originally possess. (macalester.edu)
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • There are many methods used for gene insertion: transformation, injection, viral infection or bombardment with DNA-coated tungsten or gold particles. (macalester.edu)
  • Profiling novel sulfonamide antitumor agents with cell-based phenotypic screens and array-based gene expression analysis. (naver.com)
  • Cell division cycle 73, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component, homolog (S. cerevisiae), also known as CDC73 and parafibromin, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CDC73 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Pasireotide works by binding to a protein called somatostatin receptor, which is expressed in many tissues throughout the body including thyroid cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • organisms
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequently
  • He also adopted the term "battery", (denoting the increasing of power with a row of similar units as in a battery of cannon), subsequently applied to clusters of electrochemical cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • Then the cells are grown on a dish with the medium that the antibiotic is resistant to and if the insertion was successful, then cells will grow. (macalester.edu)
  • activation
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell's
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • dormancy
  • If a cell is signaled to remain undivided, instead of moving onto the S phase, it will leave the G1 phase and move into a state of dormancy called the G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical treatment on dormant plants has been proven to be an effective method to break dormancy, particularly in woody plants such as grapes, berries, apples, peaches and kiwis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, hydrogen cyanamide stimulates cell division and growth in dormant plants, causing budbreak when the plant is on the edge of breaking dormancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • TUNEL is a method for detecting apoptotic DNA fragmentation, widely used to identify and quantify apoptotic cells, or to detect excessive DNA breakage in individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • This chapter presents biology and enzootic cycles of B. burgdorferi and related Borrelia species. (asmscience.org)
  • However, due to the slow mutation rates it experiences, it is often hard to distinguish between closely related species to any large degree, so other methods of analysis must be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Modern biotech methods are used to manufacture existing medicines more easily, in order to treat human diseases. (lafayettecollege.org)
  • Gorczyca W, Traganos F, Jesionowska H, Darzynkiewicz Z. Presence of DNA strand breaks and increased sensitivity of DNA in situ to denaturation in abnormal human sperm cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • closely
  • A method of closely interconnecting integrated circuits contained within a semiconductor wafer to electrical circuits surrounding the semiconductor wafer. (google.com)
  • determines
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • known
  • After R and before S, the cell is known as being in G1-ps, or the pre S phase interval of the G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • The Achilles tendon does not have good blood supply or cell activity, so this injury can be slow to heal. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • When an injury occurs to the tendon, cells from surrounding structures migrate into the tendon to assist in repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boiling a sample for 30 minutes or more will kill virtually all vegetative cells present, but will not kill spores, which can germinate shortly thereafter and resume growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • effective method
  • A more effective method is Tyndallization, which uses three successive steam treatments to achieve sterilization over the course of three days. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • This eccentric training method is especially important for individuals with chronic Achilles tendinosis which is classified as the degeneration of collagen fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • This works by killing vegetative cells, allowing germination of surviving spores, and killing the resulting vegetative cells before they have time to form further spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if a time-varying voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, the source experiences an ongoing current due to the charging and discharging cycles of the capacitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • modification
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Main
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1992 the TUNEL has become one of the main methods for detecting apoptotic programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • It works by preventing cancer cells from multiplying and it also makes them more likely to die from the treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Any surviving spores from the first treatment, or incidentally formed spores during the first incubation period, are killed in a third steaming cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • MAJOR CANCER BREAKTHROUGH: Scientists Find Plant That Kills 98% Of Cancer Cells In Just 16 Hours! (unews.top)