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  • gene
  • The P. pastoris expression system uses the methanol-induced alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter, which controls the gene that codes for the expression of alcohol oxidase, the enzyme which catalyzes the first step in the metabolism of methanol. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Here we constructed a malonyl-CoA pathway by heterologously overexpressing the mcr gene to convert methanol into 3-HP in M. extorquens AM1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • methane
  • At present, methanol is usually produced using methane (the chief constituent of natural gas ) as a raw material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane and its oxidation product, methanol, have occupied an important position in the chemical industry for many years: the former as a feedstock, the latter as a primary chemical from which many products are produced. (springer.com)
  • Methanol is the second most abundant organic molecule in the atmosphere after methane (CH 4 ), and along with other insoluble aerosol particles methanol is believed to play a role in the formation of ice in the atmosphere, as discussed and modeled, for example, in [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory, Tufts University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have shown that mononuclear rhodium species, anchored on a zeolite or titanium dioxide support suspended in aqueous solution, can catalyze the direct conversion of methane to methanol and acetic acid using oxygen and carbon monoxide under mild conditions. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Today most methanol is produced from methane through syngas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conventional route to methanol from methane passes through syngas generation by steam reforming combined (or not) with partial oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • New and more efficient ways to convert methane into methanol are also being developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • pure methanol
  • As little as 10 mL of pure methanol when drunk is metabolized into formic acid, which can cause permanent blindness by destruction of the optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the median lethal dose is typically 100 mL (3.4 fl oz) (i.e. 1-2 mL/kg body weight of pure methanol). (wikipedia.org)
  • As water is consumed at the anode in the reaction, pure methanol cannot be used without provision of water via either passive transport such as back diffusion (osmosis), or active transport such as pumping. (wikipedia.org)
  • stolen methanol
  • Maistrišin proceeded to sell the stolen methanol to Aleksandr Sobolev, a known smuggler, for 76,000 krooni, claiming that it was technical spirit (i.e., laboratory-grade neutral spirit). (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar incident, the Pärnu methanol tragedy, occurred in Pärnu county, Estonia, in September 2001, when 68 people died and 43 were left disabled after contents of stolen methanol canisters were used in production of bootleg liquor. (wikipedia.org)
  • solvent
  • Methanol (CH 3 OH) is the simplest of the alcohols, and it is used, for example, as a solvent, an alternative fuel, and as a source for producing other chemicals. (hindawi.com)
  • Gaining access to detailed adsorption data for methanol on graphite, such as positions and energetics like those provided here, is thus valuable both directly and as input data for larger simulations of molecules on graphite embedded in the (methanol) solvent. (hindawi.com)
  • fuels
  • The methanol economy is a suggested future economy in which methanol and dimethyl ether replace fossil fuels as a means of energy storage, ground transportation fuel, and raw material for synthetic hydrocarbons and their products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanol can be produced from a wide variety of sources including still-abundant fossil fuels (natural gas, coal, oil shale, tar sands, etc.) as well as agricultural products and municipal waste, wood and varied biomass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanol can also be burned in some other kinds of engine or to provide heat as other liquid fuels are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • DMFC
  • RMFC systems offer advantages over direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) systems including higher efficiency, smaller cell stacks, no water management, better operation at low temperatures, and storage at sub-zero temperatures because methanol is a liquid from -97.0 °C to 64.7 °C (-142.6 °F to 148.5 °F). The tradeoff is that RMFC systems operate at hotter temperatures and therefore need more advanced heat management and insulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomass
  • It reviewed the potential for methanol production from natural gas, very heavy oils, bituminous shales, coals, peat and biomass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its chemical formula is CH Methanol is normally produced from natural gas but also can be produced from coal or biomass crops, such as bagasse, the pulp residue left over from sugar cane, as shown in the picture to the right. (factbites.com)
  • Fomepizole
  • Of the remainder, a problem in attempting to treat them was that fomepizole, a methanol antidote, is not certified for use in Russia and is therefore not available in the country's hospitals. (wikipedia.org)
  • canisters
  • On the night of 6 September 2001, ten 200-litre canisters of methanol, totalling 1.6 metric tonnes, were stolen from Baltfet (a company processing industrial fats, esters and animal feed) by Deniss Pletškin, a former employee and Robert Petrov, a current employee, on order of Sergei Maistrišin. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • Methanol → Partial oxidation (POX)/ Autothermal reforming (ATR)→ Water gas shift reaction (WGS)→ preferential oxidation (PROX) The reformer converts methanol to H 2 and CO 2 , a reaction that occurs at temperatures of 250 °C to 300 °C. (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fuel cell stack produces electricity in a reaction that combines H 2 (reformed from methanol in the fuel processor) and O 2 and produces water (H 2 O) as a byproduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface methoxy groups may be formed from the reaction of methanol with a zeolite acid site. (berkeley.edu)
  • Methanol→Partial oxidation(POX)/Autothermal reforming (ATR)→Water gas shift reaction (WGS)→preferential oxidation (PROX) The reformer converts methanol to H2 and CO2, a reaction that occurs at temperatures of 250 °C to 300 °C. →The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fuel cell stack produces electricity in a reaction that combines H2 (reformed from methanol in the fuel processor) and O2 and produces water (H2O) as a byproduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • reformer
  • Compact methanol reformer test for fuel-cell powered light-duty vehicles, J. Power Sources 71 (1998) 288-293 Wiese, W. et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism
  • Methanol is produced naturally in the anaerobic metabolism of many varieties of bacteria and is commonly present in small amounts in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • economy
  • In 2005, 2006 Nobel prize winner George A. Olah and colleagues advocated an entire methanol economy based on energy storage in synthetically produced methanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Average fuel economy for the methanol fuel-injected engines is 29.7 mpg on an equivalent energy basis compared to an adjusted EPA city fuel economy of 25.2 mpg. (sae.org)
  • in 2006, he and two co-authors, G. K. Surya Prakash and Alain Goeppert, published a summary of the state of fossil fuel and alternative energy sources, including their availability and limitations, before suggesting a methanol economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more efficient version of a direct fuel cell would play a key role in the theoretical use of methanol as a general energy transport medium, in the hypothesized methanol economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • fuel
  • This article is about methanol used as a fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In China, methanol is made for fuel from coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ citation needed ] Widespread production by this route has a proposed potential to offer methanol fuel at a low cost and with benefits to the environment (see Hagen, SABD & Olah references below). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, methanol fuel has been produced using renewable energy and carbon dioxide as a feedstock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hagen (1976) reviewed prospects for synthesizing methanol from renewable resources and its use as a fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Director Gregory Dolan presented the 2008 global methanol fuel industry in China. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell ( RMFC ) or Indirect Methanol Fuel Cell (IMFC) systems are a subcategory of proton-exchange fuel cells where, the fuel, methanol (CH 3 OH), is reformed, before being fed into the fuel cell . (wikipedia.org)
  • The fuel cartridge stores the methanol fuel, which is often diluted with up to 40% (by volume) water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both comparisons indicate less gains with methanol than expected based on fuel properties and higher compression. (sae.org)
  • The concept of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) being developed by many manufacturers may be the best transition strategy for introducing methanol, but not necessarily the best strategy to maximize methanol's air quality and energy security benefits. (sae.org)
  • Methanol is a fuel for heat engines and fuel cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the longer range however, considering diminishing fossil fuel resources and the effect of their utilization on earth's atmosphere, even the low concentration of atmospheric CO2 itself could be captured and recycled via methanol, thus supplementing nature's own photosynthetic cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct-methanol fuel cells or DMFCs are a subcategory of proton-exchange fuel cells in which methanol is used as the fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel (DGP) voted in November 2005 to allow passengers to carry and use micro fuel cells and methanol fuel cartridges when aboard airplanes to power laptop computers and other consumer electronic devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Department of Transportation issued a final ruling on April 30, 2008, permitting passengers and crew to carry an approved fuel cell with an installed methanol cartridge and up to two additional spare cartridges. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytochrome
  • 1.1.99.8) contains a prosthetic group called Pyrrolo Quinoline Quinone (PQQ) that accepts the electrons generated from methanol oxidation and passes these electrons to cytochrome c. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemodialysis
  • Additional treatment may include sodium bicarbonate for metabolic acidosis, and hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration to remove methanol and formate from the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrocarbons
  • The adsorption energies calculated with vdW-DF are compared with previous DFT-D and MP2-based calculations for single methanol adsorption on flakes of graphene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). (hindawi.com)
  • The Methanol to Hydrocarbons process was discovered at Mobil Oil in 1977. (berkeley.edu)
  • hydrogenation
  • Researchers from Soochow University in China and the University of Toronto have developed a new photocatalyst for the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol with 50% selectivity under simulated solar irradiation. (greencarcongress.com)
  • naturally
  • The preignition behavior of neat methanol in the four-stroke, naturally aspirated, watercooled, spark ignition engine is reported. (sae.org)
  • preferable
  • Adsorption in clusters or at high coverages (less than a monolayer) is found to be preferable, with the methanol C-O axis approximately parallel to the plane of graphene. (hindawi.com)
  • mainly
  • Trinidad and Tobago is currently the world's largest methanol exporter, with exports mainly to the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • A methanol-tainted batch of illegal alcohol killed 143 people in India in December 2011, affecting mainly manual workers in the eastern province of Sangrampur. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalyst
  • Methanol is mixed with a catalyst -- often sodium hydroxide -- and added to the oil. (factbites.com)
  • The water-methanol mixture is introduced into a tube-shaped reactor where it makes contact with the catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methanol cross-over and/or its effects can be alleviated by (a) developing alternative membranes (e.g.), (b) improving the electro-oxidation process in the catalyst layer and improving the structure of the catalyst and gas diffusion layers (e.g. ), and (c) optimizing the design of the flow field and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) which can be achieved by studying the current density distributions (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • The half-reactions are: Methanol and water are adsorbed on a catalyst usually made of platinum and ruthenium particles, and lose protons until carbon dioxide is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • The conversion of methanol to olefins on acidic zeolites takes place through a complex network of chemical reactions. (berkeley.edu)
  • Methanol chemical analysis to ASTM and IMPCA quality and purity specifications and standards. (intertek.com)
  • Intertek tests methanol and solutions containing methanol for purity, contamination, composition and other quality and chemical parameters. (intertek.com)
  • Methanol is used on a large scale (about 37 million tonnes per year) as feedstock to produce numerous chemical products and materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • This page provides supplementary chemical data on methanol. (wikipedia.org)