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  • methanol
  • The chemistry behind the cycling takes a chemically inert hydrocarbon, methane, and converts it to a more active species, methanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane functionalization is the process of converting methane in its gaseous state to another molecule with a functional group, typically methanol or acetic acid, through the use of transition metal catalysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • then was able to catalytically convert methane into methanol or methyl chloride when a Pt(IV) salt was used as a stoichiometric oxidant. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction methane + quinol + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } methanol + quinone + H2O Methane monooxygenase contains copper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane and its oxidation product, methanol, have occupied an important position in the chemical industry for many years: the former as a feedstock, the latter as a primary chemical from which many products are produced. (springer.com)
  • oxidation
  • These enzymes have a relatively wide substrate specificity and can catalyse the oxidation of a range of substrates including ammonia, methane, halogenated hydrocarbons, and aromatic molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • A methane reformer is a device based on steam reforming, autothermal reforming or partial oxidation and is a type of chemical synthesis which can produce pure hydrogen gas from methane using a catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • so any microorganism that can effect this may point the way to catalytic chemists looking for con- trollable methane oxidation. (springer.com)
  • volume of methane
  • Here it leads to a serious underestimation, by a factor of approximately 3, for the volumes of CO2 sequestration which would be required to counter the warming effects of a given volume of methane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gas content determination techniques generally fall into two categories: (1) direct methods which actually measure the volume of methane released from a coal sample sealed into a desorption canister and (2) indirect methods based on empirical correlations, or laboratory derived sorption isotherm methane storage capacity data. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quantity of gas is determined by Meisner and Kim formula with using the moisture content, volatile content, volume of methane adsorbed on wet coal, fixed carbon, thickness of coal and temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydroxyl
  • Uncontrolled build-up of methane in Earth's atmosphere is naturally checked-although human influence can upset this natural regulation-by methane's reaction with hydroxyl radicals formed from singlet oxygen atoms and with water vapor. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomass
  • Abiogenic (a) methane stored in rocks and soil stems from ancient biomass and the generation mechanisms are the same as for other fossil fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks anyway, the point is clearly stated: we need to be concerned about biomass burning in the tropics, and about the global methane budget, which offers an excellent first line of attack on the greenhouse problem. (newscientist.com)
  • Anthropogenic
  • The initiative currently focuses on five sectors, which are known sources of anthropogenic methane emissions: agriculture, coal mining, municipal solid waste, municipal wastewater, and oil and gas systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • GMI is the only international effort to specifically target methane abatement, recovery and use by focusing on five key sectors of anthropogenic emissions: agriculture, coal mines, municipal solid waste, municipal wastewater, and oil and gas systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • coal
  • The term refers to methane adsorbed into the solid matrix of the coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coalbed methane is distinct from a typical sandstone or other conventional gas reservoir, as the methane is stored within the coal by a process called adsorption . (wikipedia.org)
  • The methane is in a near-liquid state, lining the inside of pores within the coal (called the matrix). (wikipedia.org)
  • Coalbed methane grew out of venting methane from coal seams. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some coal beds have long been known to be "gassy," and as a safety measure, boreholes were drilled into the seams from the surface, and the methane allowed to vent before mining. (wikipedia.org)
  • This unique behavior is because of shrinking of coal, when methane is released from its matrix, which results in opening up of fractures and increased permeability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coalbed methane extraction (CBM extraction) is a method for extracting methane from a coal deposit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane adsorbed into a solid coal matrix (coal macerals) will be released if the coal seam is depressurised. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane may be extracted by drilling wells into the coal seam. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decrease in pressure allows methane to desorb from the coal and flow as a gas up the well to the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal bed gas content measurements are commonly used in mine safety as well as coal bed methane resource assessment and recovery applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eddy and others constructed a series of curves estimating maximum producible methane content of coal bed as a function of depth and rank. (wikipedia.org)
  • The estimation of methane content of a coal bed is determined from the Eddy curve by locating the average depth of each coal seam on the depth axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intersection of the line and the axis is the estimated methane content of the coal seam. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal Mines Subcommittee: Methane is emitted from both underground and surface coal mining operations, including both active and abandoned mines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GMI Coal Mines Subcommittee seeks to development coal mine methane (CMM) projects to advance methane recovery and use at coal mines. (wikipedia.org)
  • greenhouse
  • The concentration of methane in Earth's atmosphere has increased by about 150% since 1750, and it now accounts for 20% of the total radiative forcing from all of the long-lived and globally mixed greenhouse gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Global methane emissions are major part of the global greenhouse gas emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, the role played by methane as a potent "greenhouse" gas has aroused considerable attention from environmentalists and clima- tologists alike. (springer.com)
  • atmosphere
  • F. Plants - While methane can be consumed in soil before being released into the atmosphere, plants allow for direct travel of methane up through the roots and leaves and into the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane in the atmosphere has a 100-year global warming potential of 34. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in a number of sites around the world, these methane chimneys release the gas directly into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. (wikipedia.org)
  • Will global warming release the methane to the atmosphere? (wikipedia.org)
  • Diffusion through the profile refers to the movement of methane up through soil and bodies of water to reach the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane can travel directly up from the soil into the atmosphere using this transport system. (wikipedia.org)
  • sediment
  • The observed density is around 0.9 g/cm3, which means that methane hydrate will float to the surface of the sea or of a lake unless it is bound in place by being formed in or anchored to sediment. (wikipedia.org)
  • reacts
  • reported a synthesis of methyl bisulfate from methane using a mercury catalyst at 180 °C. Mercuric bisulfate activates methane electrophilically to form a methyl-complex, which then reacts with sulfuric acid to produce methyl bisulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • From dimethylamine and trimethoxyborane sodium dimethylamide is formed in situ in the presence of sodium hydride which reacts with N,N,N',N'-tetramethylformamidinium chloride in 84% yield to tris(dimethylamino)methane and with bis(dimethylamino)acetonitrile in 77% yield. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when heated tris(dimethylamino)methane reacts with protic solvents (such as water or alcohols) but also with weak CH-azide substances, such as acetone or acetonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • H. Waste water treatment facilities - Anaerobic treatment of organic compounds in the water results in the production of methane. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in peatlands, the mass amount of dead, but not decaying, organic matter results in relatively slow diffusion of methane through the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bis-tris methane is an organic tertiary amine with labile protons having a pKa of 6.46 at 25 °C. It is an effective buffer between the pH 5.8 and 7.3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The partnership focuses on mitigating methane emitted during the decomposition of livestock manure and the organic components in agro-industrial wastewater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the wastewater sector, methane is produced when organic matter in wastewater decomposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aerobic
  • By contrast, aerobic methane production is thought to occur in oxygenated environments under near-ambient conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane may also be produced under aerobic conditions in near-surface ocean water, a process which likely involves the degradation of methylphosphonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Methane forms a structure I hydrate with two dodecahedral (12 vertices, thus 12 water molecules) and six tetradecahedral (14 water molecules) water cages per unit cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • stems
  • Trees in swampy, low-laying areas can conduct methane produced in soils up through their stems and out their leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • deposits
  • These deposits are located within a mid-depth zone around 300-500 m thick in the sediments (the gas hydrate stability zone, or GHSZ) where they coexist with methane dissolved in the fresh, not salt, pore-waters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large abundance of methane in natural gas or shale gas deposits presents a large potential for its use as a feedstock in modern chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large deposits of frozen methane, when thawing, release gas into the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • Tris(dimethylamino)methane (TDAM) is the simplest representative of the tris(dialkylamino)methanes of the general formula (R2N)3CH in which three of the four of methane's hydrogen atoms are replaced by dimethylamino groups (-N(CH3)2). (wikipedia.org)
  • catalyst
  • Most methods work by exposing methane to a catalyst (usually nickel) at high temperature and pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction of the dimethylformamide (DMF) dimethylacetal, HC(OCH3)2N(CH3)2, (from the DMF-dimethylsulfate complex and sodium methoxide) with dimethylamine in the presence of the acidic catalyst 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol (which is largely stable to alkylating agent) produces tris(dimethylamino)methane. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] In 2003, a clay-methane hydrate intercalate was synthesized in which a methane hydrate complex was introduced at the interlayer of a sodium-rich montmorillonite clay. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively
  • Firstly, the C-H bond is extremely inert and non-polar, with a high bond dissociation energy, making methane a relatively unreactive starting material. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • Additionally, because methane can travel more quickly through soil than water, diffusion plays a much bigger role in wetlands with drier, more loosely compacted soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • yield
  • Secondly, any products formed from methane would likely be more reactive than the starting product, which would be detrimental to the selectivity and yield of the reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tris(dimethylamino)methane is formed in good yield (83%) in the reaction of DMF with tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium(IV). (wikipedia.org)
  • N,N,N',N',N'',N''-Hexamethylguanidinium chloride (readily obtainable by dimethylamine and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylchloroformamidinium chloride derived from tetramethylurea and phosgene) forms tris(dimethylamino)methane in 53% yield under the exposure of the reducing agent sodium bis(2-methoxyethoxy)aluminum hydride (Red-Al). (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • Dissolved methane is usually identified through widespread chemical analysis of water samples, including gas chromatography of gasses extracted from the headspace of seawater samples taken at depth (headspace is the space above a sample in a sealed container, which forms as higher temperature and lower pressure allows gasses to come out of solution). (wikipedia.org)
  • carbene
  • N,N,N',N'-Tetramethylselenourea is accessible by extended heating of tris(dimethylamino)methane with selenium in xylene, bis(dimethylamino)carbene is suggested as an intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • shallow
  • Methane clathrates are common constituents of the shallow marine geosphere and they occur in deep sedimentary structures and form outcrops on the ocean floor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane clathrates are restricted to the shallow lithosphere (i.e. (wikipedia.org)