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  • main estrogens
  • A high performance liquid chromatography-based approach, jointly with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, was used to identify and measure main estrogens, various hydroxyestrogens, and their methoxy derivatives in both normal and tumor tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the human breast, interconversion of main estrogens, E 2 and E 1 , is commonly followed by two major pathways, which consist of hydroxylation at the C-16α or at C-2/C-4 positions, to respectively yield 16αOHE 1 on one hand, or the CCE, namely the 2-OH and 4-OH estrogens, on the other. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Let us only examine the scientific data on the main estrogens in Premarin. (antiaging.com)
  • oral contraceptives
  • The estrogen component of oral contraceptives, which is almost always EE, can cause breast tenderness and fullness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood clots are also a possible side effect (these problems are seen with ORAL estrogens, including oral contraceptives, rather than Premarin per se). (antiaging.com)
  • risk of endometrial cancer
  • Analysis of the joint effects of genotype and markers of estrogen exposure found the lowest risk of endometrial cancer among those with the homozygous variant genotype of the rs2070959 polymorphism and who were postmenopausal, had low body mass index, and had low soy food intake, although a test for multiplicative interaction was not significant. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that the G/G genotype ( rs2070959 ) in the UGT1A1 gene may decrease the risk of endometrial cancer and that this effect is most evident among women with low levels of endogenous estrogen exposure or with low soy food intake. (aacrjournals.org)
  • concentrations
  • Several studies have explored the specificity of these reactions, but the majority of studies were done at estrogen concentrations in the range of 50 to 100 μmol/L and often used prolonged incubation times to generate metabolites for quantification ( 28 - 37 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • whereas
  • In addition to E 2 itself, recent findings highlight the significance of 4-hydroxylated estrogen metabolites as chemical mediators and their link to breast cancer development and progression, whereas, in opposition, 2-methoxylated estrogens appear to be protective. (biomedcentral.com)
  • menstrual cycle
  • They promote the development of female secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts, and are also involved in the thickening of the endometrium and other aspects of regulating the menstrual cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • uterus
  • It is also important to emphasize that these metabolic reactions not only take place in the liver but also in estrogen target tissues such as breast, ovary and uterus, and thus they play a critical role in the local homeostasis of E 2 and its metabolites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It acts as an antagonist at uterus and mammary glands [ 8 ] by suppressing the estrogen signaling in oncogenic pathways and inhibits the downstream gene transcription [ 9 ] . (drugbank.ca)
  • metabolic
  • In opposition to other metabolic pathways of estrogen, the UGT-mediated process leads to the formation of glucuronides that are devoid of biologic activity and are readily excreted from the tissue into the circulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene
  • The actions of estrogen are mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER), a dimeric nuclear protein that binds to DNA and controls gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a mother or a sister was diagnosed breast cancer, the risk of a hereditary BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation is about 2-fold higher than those women without a familial history. (wikipedia.org)
  • premarin
  • Over nine million American women take Premarin. (antiaging.com)
  • also, a confounding factor here is that some of those women may actually be having a bad reaction to Provera, not Premarin). (antiaging.com)
  • In keeping with the CyberHealth tradition, let us consider the heretical question: for those women who do not experience side effects, who so often call Premarin "wonderful," could it be a physiologically correct blend of estrogens? (antiaging.com)
  • Or, given the double-edged, good news/bad news nature of hormones, is it nevertheless possible that Premarin offers some unique benefits not provided by other estrogen products? (antiaging.com)
  • And then there is the plausible argument (based on massive Harvard Nurses and Iowa studies) that Premarin slightly increases the risk of breast cancer only in women who consume alcohol (Zumoff 1998). (antiaging.com)
  • hormonal
  • There is increasing evidence that suggests a hormonal etiology for many cancers in women, yet much remains to be learned about the influence of exogenous hormones. (deepdyve.com)
  • SERM
  • Lasofoxifene is a non-steroidal 3rd generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that selectively binds to both ERα and ERβ with high affinity. (drugbank.ca)
  • cancers
  • 1 year (referent), 1-4, 5-9, ≥10 years) and development of incident cancers across body sites within the same base population: women in the prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (enrolled 1995-1996 and followed until 2011). (deepdyve.com)
  • You've come a long way baby," said one ad encouraging women to smoke, causing not only an increase in lung cancer but in breast and other cancers as well. (bcpinstitute.org)
  • breast
  • The estrogen:ER complex binds to specific DNA sequences called a hormone response element to activate the transcription of target genes (in a study using an estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell line as model, 89 such genes were identified). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pilot study: Effect of 3,3'-diindolymethane supplements on urinary hormone metabolites in postmenopausal women with a history of early-stage breast cancer. (townsendletter.com)
  • Estrogens are also involved in the progression of breast cancer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This booklet is written to help women understand what their risk factors are for the ​development of breast cancer and how they can reduce their risk. (bcpinstitute.org)
  • It has been the authors' hope that, armed with full and accurate information, women can make healthier choices that will minimize their risk of breast cancer. (bcpinstitute.org)
  • Although researchers had known for years that long-term use of HRT increased the risk of breast cancer, this was news to the general public-to American women and even many of their doctors. (bcpinstitute.org)
  • Estrogen and its metabolites are believed to play important roles in breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The significance of these three estrogen metabolites in human breast cancer remains controversial. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent data also indicate that breast tissue possesses enzymatic machinery to inactivate and eliminate E 2 and its oxidized and methoxylated metabolites through conjugation catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), which involves the covalent addition of glucuronic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review addresses the most recent findings on the identification of UGT enzymes that are responsible for the glucuronidation of E 2 and its metabolites, and evidence regarding their potential role in breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Twenty-one breast cancer cases, all collected from January 1986 to January 1988 at the M. Ascoli Cancer Hospital Centre in Palermo, were included in the study and compared with 6 healthy women as a control group. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is widely recognized that estrogens play a primary role in development and growth of human breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • General side effects of EE are the same as for other estrogens and include breast tenderness, headache, fluid retention (bloating), nausea, dizziness, and weight gain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A woman is more than 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer in her 60s than in her 20s. (wikipedia.org)
  • If all women lived to age 95, about one in eight would be diagnosed with breast cancer at some point during their lives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Male individuals have a much lower risk of developing breast cancer than females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Male breast cancer patients tend to be older than female ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who carry a harmful BRCA mutation have a 60% to 80% risk of developing breast cancer in their lifetimes. (wikipedia.org)
  • equine
  • But the undesirability of equine (horse) estrogens in the human body is merely a plausible-sounding argument, and not a proven fact. (antiaging.com)
  • In fact it's only now that the unique nature of equine estrogens is being seriously researched. (antiaging.com)
  • osteoporosis
  • It was initially developed as Oporia by Pfizer as a treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis and vaginal atrophy, in which were both rejected for approval by FDA. (drugbank.ca)
  • Moreover, EE can also be used to treat female hypogonadism, prevent osteoporosis, and be used as palliative care for prostate cancer (in men). (wikipedia.org)
  • derivatives
  • Syntheses and antibacterial activities of diterpene catechol derivatives with abietane, totarane and podocarpane skeletons against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes. (thefreedictionary.com)