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  • glucose
  • The bioconversion of xylose, which is the second most abundant sugar present after glucose in lignocellulosic biomass, is important for the development of cost effective bioprocesses to fuels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Xsp8 grown in batch-cultures derived from unbleached kraft hardwood pulp hydrolysate containing 70 g L -1 total sugars was able to completely and simultaneously utilize xylose and glucose present in the lignocellulosic feedstock, and yielded 11.0 g L -1 of TAGs as fatty acids, corresponding to 45.8% of the cell dry weight. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The breakdown or dissimilation of simple sugars, particularly glucose, is one of the principal sources of energy for living organisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The principal dietary carbohydrates available to humans are the simple sugars glucose and fructose, the disaccharides sucrose and lactose, and the polysaccharides glycogen and starch. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our data bring strong support to the following scenario: bacteria co-opt the host transporter SLC35D2 to import UDP-glucose into the vacuole, where it serves as substrate for de novo glycogen synthesis, through a remarkable adaptation of the bacterial glycogen synthase. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the bacteria also make new glycogen in the inclusion from a building block molecule called UDP-glucose. (elifesciences.org)
  • This transport molecule brings UDP-glucose into the inclusion, where an enzyme called glycogen synthase - which is released by the bacteria - uses the UDP-glucose to make glycogen. (elifesciences.org)
  • The C. trachomatis glycogen synthase is unusual because most other bacteria can only make glycogen from another type of glucose. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, when lactose is unavailable or when cells are grown on glucose, LacR is expressed and transcription of the lac genes is repressed.Although a CRE site is also located near the transcrip-tional start site of the lac operon, suggesting that the lac genes are subject to CcpA-mediated repression, it seems that LacR may have primary responsibility for regulating sugar metabolism. (buffalobrewingstl.com)
  • For simple fermentations , the metabolism of one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate has a net yield of two molecules of ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Native glycolytic pathways-a number of which have been discovered-oxidize the six-carbon sugar glucose into pyruvate and thence into two-carbon molecules known acetyl-CoA for either further oxidation or biosynthesis of cell constituents and products, including fatty acids, amino acids, isoprenoids and alcohols. (greencarcongress.com)
  • However, lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates also contain a substantial portion of hemicellulose-derived xylose, which is typically the second most abundant sugar after glucose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A strain engineered for constitutive expression of xylF and xylA (involved in xylose transport and metabolism) showed synchronized glucose and xylose consumption rates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Combining these strategies resulted in the most favorable overall phenotypes for simultaneous glucose-xylose consumption without compromising methyl ketone titer at both 1 and 2% total sugar concentrations in shake flasks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Performance of the methyl ketone-producing strain for this technology has thus far been optimized during growth with glucose [ 2 ], which is typically the dominant sugar in biomass hydrolysates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The glucose-specific EII complex of the PTS system consists of the permease, EIIBC Glc (encoded by ptsG ), and EIIA Glc (encoded by crr ), which has a primary role in modulating carbohydrate metabolism in E. coli . (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, its capacity to co-utilize glucose and xylose, the major sugars found in lignocellulosic biomass, is severely impaired by glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathways
  • In this report, we review diverse CO 2 assimilation pathways, acetate assimilation, carbohydrate catabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and some key, and/or unconventional enzymes in central carbon metabolism of phototrophic microorganisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Oxygenic phototrophic bacteria, known as cyanobacteria, share similar electron transport pathways with other oxygenic phototrophs (e.g., plants and algae). (frontiersin.org)
  • In the phosphorylative pathways, the sugar is first converted to a phosphate ester (phosphorylated) in a reaction with ATP. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the nonphosphorylative pathways, the sugar is usually oxidized to the corresponding aldonic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • L-Rha catabolic pathways were previously characterized in various bacteria including Escherichia coli . (frontiersin.org)
  • By using both pathways, C. trachomatis is able to trap most of the glycogen stores of the infected cell within the inclusion so that they are inaccessible to the host but ready for the bacteria to use. (elifesciences.org)
  • Overall, this work demonstrates genetic modifications that can lead to succinic acid production improvements and identifies key flux determinants and new bottlenecks and energetic needs when removing by-product pathways in A. succinogenes metabolism. (asm.org)
  • While it is theoretically possible to split sugars or sugar phosphates into stoichiometric amounts of acetyl-CoA in a carbon- and redox-neutral manner, resulting in maximal yields, no such pathways are known to exist in nature. (greencarcongress.com)
  • NOG enables complete carbon conservation in sugar catabolism to acetyl-CoA, and can be used in conjunction with CO 2 fixation and other one-carbon (C1) assimilation pathways to achieve a 100% carbon yield to desirable fuels and chemicals. (greencarcongress.com)
  • While the pathways in this discussion start with sugar and finish as various end-products, there are several intermediate compounds formed along the way as one thing is converted to the next. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • lignocellulosic
  • In addition, A. succinogenes is capnophilic, incorporating CO 2 into SA, making this organism an ideal candidate host for conversion of lignocellulosic sugars and CO 2 to an emerging commodity bioproduct sourced from renewable feedstocks. (asm.org)
  • disaccharides
  • Sucrose and trehalose are the only common nonreducing disaccharides found in nature, and their metabolism is inextricably linked in plants. (els.net)
  • Phosphotransferase system (PTS), organism-specific biosystem The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the. (nih.gov)
  • organism
  • The end products of metabolism depend on the organism and, to some extent, on the environmental conditions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Even though many organisms are capable of natively converting these sugars, the most commonly selected organism is baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • pathway
  • The pathway involves the partial oxidation and splitting of sugars to pyruvate, which in turn is decarboxylated to produce acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) for various biosynthetic purposes. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Then, they genetically engineered E. coli bacteria to use the synthetic pathway and demonstrated complete carbon conservation. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The researchers also noted that this new synthetic pathway could be used with many kinds of sugars, which in each case have different numbers of carbon atoms per molecule, and no carbon would be wasted. (greencarcongress.com)
  • An examination of in vivo metabolism has detected the hallmarks of milk oligosaccharide utilization via the central fermentative pathway using metabolomic and proteomic approaches. (pnas.org)
  • bacterial
  • it is thought that Bifidobacterium's ability to compete with other gastrointestinal bacteria and occupy a large percentage in the bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal region might be partly due to the large variety of molecules that it is able to use for energy (Schell et al . (kenyon.edu)
  • Aristilde used an emerging biochemical approach, called metabolomics, to track different sugar carbon atoms inside the bacterial cells and learn why the cell factory does not efficiently convert all sugar carbons into biofuel. (phys.org)
  • We provide evidence that bacterial glycogen metabolism enzymes are secreted into the vacuole lumen through type 3 secretion. (elifesciences.org)
  • organisms
  • To satisfy the increased demand for sustainable energy sources and identify the mechanism of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, which is one of the bottlenecks in photosynthesis, it is essential to understand the process of solar energy storage and associated carbon metabolism in photosynthetic organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • coli
  • This work demonstrated a strategy for engineering simultaneous utilization of C 6 and C 5 sugars in E. coli without sacrificing production of fatty acid-derived compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lactose
  • A second biochemical mechanism for regulating lactose metabolism involves the PTS transport proteins, and the cytoplasmic component HPr, in particular (Figure 2-12). (buffalobrewingstl.com)
  • utilization
  • Large-scale regulon inference using bioinformatics revealed remarkable variations in transcriptional regulators for L-Rha utilization genes among bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, fully respiratory metabolism only takes place during the utilization of low sugar concentrations and slow rates of sugar consumption and growth, and plenitude of oxygen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • enzymes
  • Specifically, genes for cellulosomal enzymes and components were highly expressed on α-cellulose, while xylanases and glucosidases were up-regulated on 5 carbon sugars with respect to cellobiose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel bifunctional enzyme, L-rhamnulose-phosphate aldolase (RhaE) fused to L-lactaldehyde dehydrogenase (RhaW), which is not homologous to previously characterized L-Rha catabolic enzymes, was identified in diverse bacteria including Chloroflexi, Bacilli, and Alphaproteobacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • sucrose
  • Such result was accomplished by effectively reducing sucrose uptake by the yeast cells, avoiding overflow metabolism, with the concomitant reduction in ethanol production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sucrose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and the most common transport sugar in plants. (els.net)
  • Sucrose metabolism in plants. (els.net)
  • Domain architecture of sucrose‐phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose‐phosphatase (SPP) from bacteria and plants. (els.net)
  • genes
  • Gene Ontology categorization of the differentially expressed genes hinted at a significant impact of infection on the primary metabolism of the host, which was confirmed by subsequent metabolite profiling. (ugent.be)
  • Hexoses, accumulating from a significantly increased invertase activity, possibly inhibited the expression of photosynthesis genes and photosynthetic activity in infected leaves. (ugent.be)
  • This process, whereby transcription of catabolic genes, including other PTS genes, is blocked in the presence of a preferred sugar, is called catabolite repression. (buffalobrewingstl.com)
  • ethanol
  • The variation is explained by the production of other sugar metabolites, such as formic acid and ethanol ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • symbiotic
  • This work highlights the use of metabolic modeling to design defined growth media for symbiotic bacteria and may provide novel inhibitory targets to block trypanosome transmission. (asm.org)
  • Included in this are a vast array of symbiotic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • strains capable
  • In an effort to improve the efficiency of this process, growing attention has been devoted to engineering new strains capable of simultaneously utilizing multiple sugars. (biomedcentral.com)
  • vitro
  • This has been used subsequently to analyze in vitro aspects of S. glossinidius metabolism, revealing multiple unique adaptations of the symbiont to its environment. (asm.org)
  • involves
  • Using nonedible plant materials for biofuel production is important to sustainable energy options, and processing these materials involves metabolizing the plant's sugars. (phys.org)
  • This process involves the accumulation of sugar against a concentration gradient and requires active metabolism of the mucosal tissue as a source of energy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • found
  • L-rhamnose (L-Rha) is a deoxy-hexose sugar commonly found in nature. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inside these cells, the bacteria are found inside compartments known as inclusions, which protect them from the host's defense responses and enable them to create a comfortable environment for themselves. (elifesciences.org)
  • Trehalose is a nonreducing disaccharide found in many bacteria, archaea, invertebrates and fungi, and is often used as a stress protectant, compatible solute, storage reserve or transport sugar. (els.net)
  • fatty
  • The yield of total fatty acids per gram of sugars consumed was 0.178 g, which consisted primarily of palmitic acid and oleic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genome
  • We report nine genome sequences representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of these bacteria. (pnas.org)
  • molecule
  • To do this, the bacteria recruit a host transport molecule to the membrane that surrounds the inclusion. (elifesciences.org)
  • As carbo - hydrates , sugars are made up of carbon ( C ) and water, which is composed of hydrogen ( H ) and oxygen ( O ). The hydrogen and oxygen atoms are arranged in various configurations around a chain of carbon atoms which form the structural backbone of the molecule. (thefreshloaf.com)