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  • Pathway
  • This substrate protein-chaperone complex binds to lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP-2A), which acts as the receptor for this pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, to modulate the activity of this autophagic pathway, the cell stringently regulates the levels of the CMA receptor at the lysosomal membrane by controlling the degradation rates of LAMP-2A monomers in lysosomes and by de novo synthesis of LAMP-2A molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the primary regulators of a crucial step in the central metabolic pathway, the pyruvate dehydrogenase family is tightly regulated itself by a myriad of factors including transcription factors Sp1 and CCAAT box binding factor (CBF). (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows continued signal output (e.g., to trigger insulin release) amid significant amounts of its product These two features allow it to regulate a "supply-driven" metabolic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino Acids
  • This protein is located in the matrix of the mitochondria and inhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by phosphorylating one of its subunits, reducing the conversion of pyruvate, which is produced from the oxidation of glucose and amino acids, to acetyl-CoA and contributing to the regulation of glucose metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mature protein encoded by the PDK4 gene contains 294 amino acids in its sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • androgen receptor
  • Testosterone, which is secreted by the Leydig cells in the interstitium, signals through the androgen receptor (AR) located in the Sertoli cells inside the seminiferous epithelium, where spermatogenesis takes place. (biologists.org)
  • agonists
  • A clonal line derived from retinoic acid-treated P19s (9E11G) stably expressed multiple characteristics of differentiated smooth muscle, including smooth muscle-specific isoforms of α-actin and myosin heavy chain, as well as functional responses to the contractile agonists phenylephrine, angiotensin II, ATP, bradykinin, histamine, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, and PDGF-BB. (ahajournals.org)
  • We identified retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists as potent inducers of nuclear Scx in the small molecule screen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • vitamin
  • Testosterone and the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), are both known to be important for spermatogenesis, and misregulation of either RA or androgens causes testicular dysfunctions, usually resulting in male infertility. (biologists.org)
  • These receptors are necessary for the body to properly sense and utilize those forms of vitamin A ( R , R ). As a result, the many benefits of vitamin A cannot be obtained without proper retinoic acid receptor function. (selfhacked.com)
  • Regarding the mechanism of parturition, it is conjectured that by nine months of gestation the hepatic accumulation of vitamin A (retinol) from the liver is such that mobilization and secretion are impaired to the point where stored vitamin A compounds in the form of retinyl esters and retinoic acid begin to spill or leak into the circulation, resulting in amniotic membrane destabilization and the initiation of parturition. (oatext.com)
  • The other main forms of vitamin A, retinol, and a partially active form, retinoic acid, may both be produced from retinal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinol is called vitamin A alcohol, or more often, simply vitamin A. Retinal can also be oxidized to retinoic acid (RA) retinal + NAD+ + H2O → retinoic acid + NADH + H+ (catalyzed by RALDH) retinal + O2 + H2O → retinoic acid + H2O2 (catalyzed by retinal oxidase) catalyzed by retinal dehydrogenases also known as retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) as well as retinal oxidases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinoic acid, sometimes called vitamin A acid, is an important signaling molecule and hormone in vertebrate animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • SEQUENCE
  • Therefore, some of the components that participate in CMA are present in the cytosol while others are located at the lysosomal membrane (Table I). In one mechanism for a protein to be a CMA substrate, it must have in its amino acid sequence a pentapeptide motif biochemically related to KFERQ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The predicted 824-amino acid human NPAS2 protein shares 87% sequence identity with mouse Npas2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, it is technically neither a transcription factor nor nuclear receptor but nevertheless it is still classified as such due to relatively high sequence homology with other nuclear receptor family members. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A-B domain is highly variable in sequence between various nuclear receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • E) Ligand binding domain (LBD): Moderately conserved in sequence and highly conserved in structure between the various nuclear receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • F) C-terminal domain: Highly variable in sequence between various nuclear receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • roles
  • Dupe V, Ghyselinck NB, Thomazy V, Nagy L, Davies PJ, Chambon P, Mark M. Essential roles of retinoic acid signaling in interdigital apoptosis and control of BMP-7 expression in mouse autopods. (springer.com)
  • He been studying potential mechanisms involved in thyroid neoplasia and cancer, including the roles of telomerase and the retinoic acid receptors and is interested in newer therapies for thyroid cancer and metabolic consequences of subclinical hypothyroidism. (thyca.org)
  • citation needed] Hyaluronic acid synthases (HAS) play roles in all of the stages of cancer metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hyaluronic acid receptors, CD44 and RHAMM, are most thoroughly studied in terms of their roles in cancer metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • activators
  • The peripheral clocks can also be entrained independently by different factors such as external nutritional, hormonal and chemical cues that in many cases come from ligand modulation of nuclear receptors and kinase activators. (omicsonline.org)
  • insulin
  • Obesity-associated insulin resistance is a precursor to type 2 diabetes and is part of the metabolic syndrome, which has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. (jci.org)
  • Retinoic acid and RAR (RAR) activity also improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in animal studies ( R ). (selfhacked.com)
  • The improvements in glucose tolerance are likely explained by the retinoic acid receptor's interactions with the cells that produce insulin, pancreatic β cells. (selfhacked.com)
  • In fact, it has been shown that insufficient downregulation of PDK mRNA in insulin-resistant individuals could be a cause of increased PDK expression leading to impaired glucose oxidation followed by increased fatty acid oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • It remains to be determined whether retinoic acid has induced commitment to a smooth muscle cell lineage as opposed to directly (or indirectly) activating genes characteristic of differentiated smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Beside the CYP family NNK can also be activated by metabolic genes, like myeloperoxidase (MPO) and epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these regulated genes are associated with various diseases, which explains why the molecular targets of approximately 13% of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs target nuclear receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidermal
  • Hatoum A, El-Sabban ME, Khoury J, Yuspa SH, Darwiche N. Overexpression of retinoic acid receptors α and γ into neoplastic epidermal cells causes retinoic acid-induced growth arrest and apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • UV exposure would also lead to the activation of receptors for epidermal growth factor, IL-1, and TNF-α in keratinocytes and fibroblasts, which then activates signaling kinases throughout the skin via an unknown mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • A unique property of nuclear receptors that differentiates them from other classes of receptors is their ability to directly interact with and control the expression of genomic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apical poles of these neurons express odorant receptors on non-motile cilia at the ends of the dendritic knob, which extend out into the airspace to interact with odorants. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • To evaluate the effects of these compounds on metabolic enzymes, male Sprague-Dawley rats received daily oral doses for 4 days, and liver microsomes were prepared on day 5. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Other nuclear receptors, such as CAR and PXR appear to function as xenobiotic sensors up-regulating the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes that metabolize these xenobiotics. (wikipedia.org)