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  • carbons
  • For a molecule, i , that contains 3 carbons there are 2 3 , i.e., 8, different labeling patterns that make up the k members of the isotope fraction I ik . (nih.gov)
  • Although a Krebs cycle is not operative, malate, fumarate and succinate, primarily labelled in three carbons, were present, indicating an origin from phosphoenolpyruvate via oxaloacetate. (chalmers.se)
  • patterns
  • The use of randomly labeled, uniform isotopic abundance creates isotopic patterns (signatures) of such strength that they are easily detected and used, imparting many analytical advantages to the IROA method. (wikipedia.org)
  • photosynthesis
  • In biology, the ratio of carbon-13 and carbon-12 isotopes in plant tissues is different depending on the type of plant photosynthesis and this can be used, for example, to determine which types of plants were consumed by animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • In this process, protein purification is carried out after mixing the cell lysates from two types of cells that have been differentially labeled. (mcponline.org)
  • These standards are the pre-selected synthetic peptides from the protein of interest that gets labeled with an isotope. (frontiersin.org)
  • ratios
  • Because the different isotope ratios for the two kinds of plants propagate through the food chain, it is possible to determine if the principal diet of a human or other animal consists primarily of C3 plants or C4 plants by measuring the isotopic signature of their collagen and other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • turnover rates
  • Using N15 labeling, we report that the turnover rates for DMN1l and FIS1 go in opposite directions in the cerebellum of 22-month-old C57BL6j mice as compared to 3-month-old mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • routes
  • Different metabolic routes have been discovered for catabolizing ferulate, (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid), which differs from p -coumarate by an additional methoxyl group on the aromatic ring. (mcponline.org)
  • Measurement of 18O dilution with time gives the total loss of this isotope by all routes (by water and respiration). (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. (mdpi.com)
  • processes
  • Metabolic engineering is the practice of optimizing genetic and regulatory processes within cells to increase the cells' production of a certain substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • protocols
  • Authoritative and practical, Plant Metabolism: Methods and Protocols seeks to benefit scientists ranging from plant biology, metabolic engineering, and biotechnology. (springer.com)
  • sample
  • Here, the light and heavy samples are mixed after the sample preparation, wherein, in the metabolic labeling approach, the translational machinery of the cell incorporates heavy label into the whole proteome, and the light and heavy samples are mixed prior to sample preparation. (frontiersin.org)
  • TAILS requires only small sample of peptide for experimentation (100-300 ug), can be used with proteases which have unknown or broad specificity and supports a variety of methods for sample labeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least two samples are required: an initial sample (after the isotopes have reached equilibrium in the body), and a second sample some time later. (wikipedia.org)