• Phenanthrene was visualized within the leaf cuticle, epidermis, mesophyll, and vascular system of living maize and spinach plants. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Phenanthrene diffused through the cuticles of both species in 24-48 h, entering the epidermis to reside predominantly within the cell walls of maize (indicative of apoplastic transport) and the cellular cytoplasm of spinach (indicative of symplastic transport). (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The cuticle and epidermis at the edges of spinach leaves had a systematically higher concentration of phenanthrene than the cuticle and epidermal cells at the center of the leaf. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Phenanthrene entered the internal mesophyll of both species, and was found within the mesophyll cell walls, at the surface of the chloroplasts, and within the cellular cytoplasm. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The resulting transpirational pull is responsible for the movement of water from the xylem to the mesophyll cells into the air spaces in the leaves. (vernier.com)
  • This review intends to approach plant transition metal nutrition, contemplating how plants incorporate metals from soil either on their own or assisted by associated microorganisms (mainly arbuscular mycorrhiza), and how they are delivered to leaves, seeds, and, in the case of legumes, to endosymbiotic bacteria living within the root nodule cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2005). Effect of hydrogen peroxide on catalase gene expression, isoform activities and levels in leaves of potato sprayed with homobrassinolide and ultrastructural changes in mesophyll cells . (up.pt)
  • Phenanthrene accumulated within the spinach cytoplasm where it concentrated into the vacuoles of the epidermal cells. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Some of the components of the system are joined by structural connexions and they all have a functional continuity in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells ( MorrĂ© & Ovtracht, 1977 ). (biologists.com)
  • Phenanthrene was not observed to accumulate in the cytoplasm of maize cells. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The model may be applied to simulate the potential ecosystem of a particular area or region, or across a grid made up of many adjacent areas (grid cells). (lu.se)
  • The endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells includes the nuclear envelope, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane and various cytoplasmic vesicles ( Northcote, 1971 , 1974 ). (biologists.com)
  • The difficulties met in separating and identifying intact endomembranes from plant cells arise from the presence of the cell wall and the lack of reliable markers for the different parts of the endomembrane system ( Quail, 1979 ). (biologists.com)
  • Since individual domains did not exhibit any kind of lateral movement within the plane of the membrane, a stabilization of them from cytoskeletal components as well as from components of the cell wall was presumed. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • 1983 . A chimeric antibiotic resistance gene as a selectable marker for plant cell transformation. (annualreviews.org)
  • Plant Cell Environ, 42, 2065-2074. (uibk.ac.at)
  • Plant Cell Environ, 40, 3101-3112. (uibk.ac.at)
  • We show that whereas symptoms reflecting harm to the host have remained constant or decreased, there has been an increase in how extensively MSV colonizes the cells upon which transmission vectors feed. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the latter case, the grid cells are modelled independently of each other, i.e. results for one grid cell do not affect the neighbouring grid cells. (lu.se)
  • These microorganisms can simply increase metal solubility in soils and making them more accessible to the host plant, as well as induce the plant metal deficiency response, or directly deliver transition elements to cortical cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • fix CO2 into organic acids in the mesophyll cells, which do not rely on stomata. (fsicourses.net)
  • TfALOG1 transgenic lines, normal development of petal epidermal cells was disrupted, accompanied with changes in the expression of MIXTA -like genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • it is the part of the mesophyll with cells tightly packaged with their major axis perpendicularly to the epidermal surface. (uvigo.es)
  • We conduct interdisciplinary research on the cell biology and physiology of phloem transport. (cornell.edu)
  • Our primary interest is in phloem loading, the active accumulation of sugars in minor vein sieve elements and companion cells. (cornell.edu)
  • Rather they diffuse from mesophyll cells into the phloem. (cornell.edu)
  • We conduct interdisciplinary research on the cell biology and eco-physiology of phloem transport. (cornell.edu)
  • Phloem is made up of small cells with thin cells walls stained in blue. (uvigo.es)
  • Irregular chlorophyll-bearing mesophyll cells interspersed with air spaces. (nih.gov)
  • it is the part of the mesophyll that shows many and large intercellular spaces. (uvigo.es)
  • We are conducting a number studies with this experimental system to confirm the polymer-trap model, to explore and model the transport of exotic compounds, and to refine our understanding of the cell biology of minor vein companion cells. (cornell.edu)
  • Arabidopsis vacuoles accumulated low levels of PC2 -Cd, and vesicles from yeast cells expressing either AtABCC1 or AtABCC2 exhibited negligible PC2 -Cd transport activity compared with PC2 -As. (nih.gov)
  • Sandwich freezing (freezing the specimen rapidly with liquid propane by placing it between two copper disks) and freeze-substitution of living yeast cells has been used for observing exquisite close-to-native ultrastructure of cells. (go.jp)
  • Although cells can use many organic molecules for fuel, carbohydrates are the principal fuel for cells (this includes glucose). (saylor.org)
  • Each root hair has a thin permeable cell wall, a semi-permeable cytoplasm and an osmotically active cell sap present in the central vacuole. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • Due to this series of ion uptake and efflux guard cells lose turgor and stomatal aperture shrinks otherwise called stomatal closure. (sciencearena.in)
  • However, it is interrupted by the presence of impermeable lignosuberin casparian strips in the walls of endodermal cells. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • The epidermis is a layer of cells with thin cell walls. (uvigo.es)
  • They show cell walls stained in red. (uvigo.es)
  • Alveoli walls are only one cell thick - this means they are in extremely close contact with the capillaries. (studysmarter.co.uk)
  • 15. Phalloidin associates with microfilaments after microinjection into tissue culture cells. (nih.gov)
  • In commercial micropropagation laboratories, the light source is one of the most important factors controlling plant morphogenesis and metabolism of plant cells and tissue and organ cultures. (intechopen.com)
  • Mild oxidative stress often induces antioxidant defense enzymes, but severe stress can cause oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA within cells, leading to such events as DNA strand breakage and disruption of calcium ion metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • During the development of axillary meristem, stem cells must be established and maintained to build up the axillary meristems. (go.jp)
  • While the mechanism underlying stem cell maintenance in the SAM, including the WUSCHEL-CLAVATA negative feedback loop, has been well elucidated, studies on the regulation of stem cell maintenance during axillary meristem development have only just begun. (go.jp)
  • In this minireview, we describe the genetic mechanisms underlying stem cell maintenance in both the established SAM and the developing axillary meristem in two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice). (go.jp)
  • Gene duplication generates a large proportion of genes and further forms different sizes of gene families with diverse functions, evident in TCP ( TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1 , CYCLOIDEA and PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN FACTOR ), KNOX ( KNOTTED HOMEOBOX ) and MADS ( MINI CHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE 1 , AGAMOUS , DEFICIENS , and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR ) families [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • they are a type of cell that appear as single cells scattered through the mesophyll. (uvigo.es)
  • 14. Normal and Ha-ras-1 oncogene transformed Buffalo rat liver (BRL) cells show differential resistance to cytoskeletal protein inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Don't show photos automatically, e.g., spotty cell connection. (unc.edu)
  • Here, we have used glutaraldehyde fixation, sandwich freezing, and freeze substitution to observe human cells and tissues. (go.jp)
  • Upper layer of columnar elongated cells beneath and perpendicular to the upper epidermis and constituting the primary area of photosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Each root hair has a central vacuole filled with osmotically active cell sap and a peripheral cytoplasm. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
  • A primary tool in this work is the galactinol synthase promoter that we cloned from melon and which is active only in the companion cells of minor veins. (cornell.edu)
  • 17. Relations between cell volume control, microfilaments and microtubules networks in T2 and PC12 cultured cells. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Cytoskeletal events underlying dendrite formation by cultured pigment cells. (nih.gov)