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  • apoptosis
  • ADAM15 has been associated with a number of diseases, most recently Rheumatoid Arthritis where it is required for the activation of the FAK and Src pathways to generate apoptosis resistance in response to apoptotic signalling or cell stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The primary function of mesangial cells is to remove trapped residues and aggregated protein from the basement membrane thus keeping the filter free of debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein kinase C-activating phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate stimulated ET-1 production in a concentration-dependent manner in cells of both rat strains, but this stimulation was significantly greater in SHR cells than in WKY cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increased response of ET-1 production to protein kinase C activation appears to contribute in part to the observed enhancement of ET-1 production in SHR mesangial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Whereas the activity of the constitutive brain and endothelial cell NO synthases are mainly regulated posttranslationally by cytoplasmic Ca 2+ levels or phosphorylation by a variety of protein kinases, the inducible NO synthase is regulated primarily at a transcriptional level. (springer.com)
  • RESULTS: Western blotting demonstrated that mesangial cells produced a kallikrein protein, which was of a different molecular weight to urinary kallikrein from rats of the same species. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Abundance of TRPC6 protein in glomerular mesangial cells is decreased by ROS and PKC in diabetes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We found that high glucose (HG) significantly reduced TRPC6 protein expression in cultured mesangial cells (MCs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • They allow for the filtration of fluid, blood plasma solutes and protein, at the same time preventing the filtration of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the protein makes up about 96% of the red blood cells' dry content (by weight), and around 35% of the total content (including water). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1851, German physiologist Otto Funke published a series of articles in which he described growing hemoglobin crystals by successively diluting red blood cells with a solvent such as pure water, alcohol or ether, followed by slow evaporation of the solvent from the resulting protein solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • AXL protein is expressed in normal tissues, particularly in bone marrow stroma and myeloid cells, and in tumour cells and tumour vasculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also interacts with Src family protein-tyrosine kinases in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, suggesting that this protein may function in cell-cell adhesion as well as in cellular signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • Putative subunits of the rat mesangial Katp: a type 2B sulfonylurea receptor and an inwardly rectifying K + channel," Kidney International , vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 1739-1749, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • They resemble smooth muscle cells and play a role in renal autoregulation of blood flow to the kidney and regulation of systemic blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other cells that contain hemoglobin include the A9 dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, macrophages, alveolar cells, and mesangial cells in the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • collagen
  • Mechanical strain- and high glucose-induced alterations in mesangial cell collagen metabolism: role of TGF- β ," Journal of the American Society of Nephrology , vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 827-836, 1998. (hindawi.com)
  • Our data show that the high glucose growth stimulatory effect on cell number and DNA synthesis was suppressed by OP. Under high glucose conditions, total CA collagen synthesis was increased in confluent cultures, whereas the EC collagen fraction remained unchanged. (ahajournals.org)
  • Distinct structural forms of type I collagen modulate cell cycle regulatory proteins in mesangial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RESULTS: Polymerized type I collagen completely prevented the increase of DNA synthesis and cell replication induced by 5% fetal calf serum (FCS) or 25 ng/mL platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in MCs on monomer type I collagen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • secrete
  • They secrete and are the target for years has meant that the role of ion channels even in the normal function of the mesangial cell is now becoming numerous inflammatory mediators and, since they also more clear. (deepdyve.com)
  • Most immune cells (or leukocytes) secrete TGF-β1. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • ADAM family members are type I transmembrane glycoproteins known to be involved in cell adhesion and proteolytic ectodomain processing of cytokines and adhesion molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • high glucose
  • In the present study, mouse glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) and rat GMCs were stimulated by elevated concentrations of glucose (10, 20, and 30 mmol/L high glucose) or mannitol as the osmotic pressure control. (hindawi.com)
  • Impact of High Glucose and Proteasome Inhibitor MG132 on Histone H2A and H2B Ubiquitination in Rat Glomerular Mesangial Cells," Journal of Diabetes Research , vol. 2013, Article ID 589474, 10 pages, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • This condition was studied as differential expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation had been noted in these cells in response to high glucose levels seen with diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • Overexpression of glucose transporters in rat mesangial cells cultured in a normal glucose milieu mimics the diabetic phenotype," Journal of Clinical Investigation , vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 1802-1814, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • To determine whether OP influenced mesangial cell growth induction, the effects of increasing glucose in the cell culture media were investigated. (ahajournals.org)
  • A notable decrease in QSER1 expression has been noted in renal mesangial cells in response to treatment with 25 mM glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • KLF4 is expressed in the cells that are non-dividing and are terminally differentiated in the intestinal epithelium, where KLF4 is important in the regulation of intestinal epithelium homeostasis (terminal cell differentiation and proper localization of the different intestinal epithelium cell types). (wikipedia.org)
  • filtration
  • The multi- multifunctional, partly resembling vascular smooth functional role of the mesangial cell has made it difficult muscle cells, contracting in the presence of agents that for the electrophysiologist to study, but work in recent influence glomerular filtration, and partly taking on the role of macrophages. (deepdyve.com)
  • proteins
  • Normally the only components of the blood that are not filtered into Bowman's capsule are blood proteins, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • phagocytosis
  • Mesangial cells play a role in restricting macromolecules from accumulating in the mesangial space by receptor- independent uptake processes of phagocytosis, micro- and macro-pinocytosis, or receptor-dependent processes and then transported along the mesangial stalk. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • the kidneys where it is involved in the differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to renal lineage in vitro and its dysregulation has been linked to some renal pathologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Increasing evidence indicates that NO orchestrates acute and chronic inflammatory processes and contributes to the pathomechanisms of septic shock, destruction of pancreatic islet cells during the development of insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, adjuvant arthritis, progression of renal failure and neural destruction in vascular stroke and other neurodegenerative diseases (1). (springer.com)
  • The function of activated AXL in normal tissues includes the efficient clearance of apoptotic material and the dampening of TLR-dependent inflammatory responses and natural killer cell activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Metabolism of locally applied 17β-estradiol (estradiol) to methoxyestradiols contributes to the growth inhibiting effects of estradiol on vascular smooth muscle cells via an estrogen receptor (ER)-independent mechanism. (ahajournals.org)
  • basal
  • We examined whether basal or stimulated ET-1 production by angiotensin II (Ang II) or arginine vasopressin (AVP) is enhanced in cultured mesangial cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). (ahajournals.org)
  • Basal ET-1 production in SHR mesangial cells was not different from that in WKY cells although a trend toward increased ET-1 production was observed in SHR cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Accordingly, we designed the present study to test two hypotheses: (1) whether basal, Ang II-, or AVP-induced mesangial cell production of ET-1 is enhanced in SHR compared with WKY and (2) whether phorbol ester-induced mesangial cell production of ET-1 is enhanced in SHR compared with WKY. (ahajournals.org)
  • renal
  • We use state-of-the art approaches in cell culture, animal and clinical models to examine these mechanisms leading to enhanced vascular and renal cell growth, and monocyte activation due to altered expression of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and lipids under diabetic conditions. (cityofhope.org)
  • knockout
  • Increased glomerular filtration rate and impaired contractile function of mesangial cells in TRPC6 knockout mice. (abcam.co.jp)
  • Protein O-mannose N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (POMGnT1) knockout mice, one of the mouse models of muscular dystrophy, exhibit a thinner retina with reduced density of retinal ganglion cells. (molvis.org)
  • The inner limiting membrane of the knockout mice exhibited frequent breaks with protrusions of the Müller glial processes and ectopic placement of retinal ganglion cells into the vitreous humor. (molvis.org)
  • immune
  • Concanavalin A (ConA) has the ability to stimulate the activation of T lymphocytes, mostly CD4 + T-cells, leading to immune hepatitis in mice [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • As an autoimmune disorder, IgA nephropathy is mainly characterized by IgA immune complexes in the mesangial area of glomeruli. (renaldiseases.org)
  • In recent years, AXL has emerged as a key facilitator of immune escape and drug-resistance by cancer cells, leading to aggressive and metastatic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Here, we report that cells exposed to cell surface SE-positive HLA-DR (human leukocyte antigen-DR) molecules, to cell-free recombinant proteins genetically engineered to express the SE motif, or to SE-positive synthetic peptide showed diminished cAMP-dependent signaling, increased ROS levels, and higher vulnerability to oxidative DNA damage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (LECT2) is a protein first described in 1996 as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, i.e. it stimulated human neutrophils to move directionally in an in vitro assay system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was detected in and purified from cultures of Phytohaemagglutinin-activated human T-cell leukemia SKW-3 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome may encode over 1000 miRNAs, which are abundant in many mammalian cell types and appear to target about 60% of the genes of humans and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later, the lin-4 and let-7 RNAs were found to be part of a large class of small RNAs present in C. elegans, Drosophila and human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was in agreement with previous data showing chondroitin sulfate GAG chains attached to bovine perlecan produced by chondrocytes and that recombinant human domain I protein was glycosylated with both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains when expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternative membrane forms of Fc gamma RIII(CD16) on human natural killer cells and neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • Subsequent studies have defined LECT2 as a hepatokine, i.e. a substance made and released into the circulation by liver hepatocyte cells that regulates the function of other cells: it is a hepatocyte-derived, hormone-like, signaling protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • AXL protein is expressed in normal tissues, particularly in bone marrow stroma and myeloid cells, and in tumour cells and tumour vasculature. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • When these cells or tissues are subjected to inflammatory, fibrotic, and other insults, they commonly reduce their expression of LECT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • miRNA research revealed different sets of miRNAs expressed in different cell types and tissues and multiple roles for miRNAs in plant and animal development and in many other biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of activated AXL in normal tissues includes the efficient clearance of apoptotic material and the dampening of TLR-dependent inflammatory responses and natural killer cell activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are joined together in tissues that may be either striated or smooth, depending on the presence or absence, respectively, of organized, regularly repeated arrangements of myofibrillar contractile proteins called myofilaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • However, CYR61 supports cell adhesion through all of the integrins identified above. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a cell adhesive substrate, CYR61 induces the activation of focal adhesion kinase, paxillin, RAC, and sustained activation of MAPK/ERK1-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • [ 5 , 6 ] Both SPEB and NAPlr bind plasmin, protecting it from physiological inhibitors, and thus could cause chemotaxis of inflammatory cells and degradation of glomerular basement membranes. (medscape.com)
  • platelets
  • Normally the only components of the blood that are not filtered into Bowman's capsule are blood proteins, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • We have uncovered key signaling pathways, and gene regulation mechanisms that integrate and amplify the effects of diabetogenic stimuli in target cells. (cityofhope.org)
  • Signalling pathways activated downstream of AXL include PI3K-AKT-mTOR, MEKERK, NF-kB, and JAK/STAT. This receptor can also mediate cell aggregation by homophilic binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • AXL is a cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase, part of the TAM family of kinases including TYRO3 and MERTK. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCL21 elicits its effects by binding to a cell surface chemokine receptor known as CCR7. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • However, its expression in these cells is extremely low or undetectable even though these cells express very high levels of LECT2 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-fos has also been shown to increase in expression in response to the introduction of growth factors in the cell, further supporting its suggested involvement in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the cell type specificity of integrin expression, CYR61 acts through distinct integrins to mediate specific functions in different types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • As the condition progresses, red blood cells will leak into urine, resulting in bloody urine(include gross hematuria and microscopic hematuria). (renaldiseases.org)
  • This syndrome is a unique type of myelodysplastic syndrome characterized by a prolonged disease course, a low rate of transformation to an aggressive form of leukemia, and an anemia which in many patients is profound, refractory to traditional therapies (e.g. iron supplements, Erythropoietin), and requiring maintenance red blood cell transfusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • While the majority of miRNAs are located within the cell, some miRNAs, commonly known as circulating miRNAs or extracellular miRNAs, have also been found in extracellular environment, including various biological fluids and cell culture media. (wikipedia.org)
  • smooth muscl
  • In essential hypertension, increased peripheral resistance and elevated arterial pressure are causally related to an increase in the tone and reactivity of vascular smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • cellular
  • Quasi-cellular systems able to produce proteins directly from DNA can be obtained by encapsulating the cell-free transcription/translation system. (ebscohost.com)
  • survival
  • A proper balance between Bcl-2 and Bax determines cell survival and cell death. (hindawi.com)
  • AXL has been implicated as a cancer driver and correlated with poor survival in numeorus aggressive tumors including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pancreatic cancer and ovarian cancer, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone
  • 12 hours after cerebral ischemia is the optimal time for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. (abcam.co.jp)
  • role
  • AXL may also play an important role in Zika virus infection, allowing for entry of the virus into host cells. (wikipedia.org)