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  • stimuli
  • The last three classes of VSTM tasks are highly similar insofar as they involve the brief presentation of a set of stimuli followed by a short delay period and then some kind of simple memory test. (scholarpedia.org)
  • However, in the absence of the need for maintaining and manipulating the stimuli, such discriminations may be more properly described as tests of a type of short-term memory (STM) that we will call passive short-term memory (pSTM) rather than WM. (pnas.org)
  • the distinction between categorical perception and continuous, noncategorical perception, the former term implying that perception of some stimuli activates their previously stored representations sorted into categories on the basis of either their physical similarity or some more abstract factor. (pnas.org)
  • A closely related benefit of a system that actively maintains stimuli in memory by activating their stored representations is greater attentional control ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Specifically, the stored representation of an item can be reactivated continuously or repeatedly (i.e., rehearsed), and thus the maintained memory of the item can be more readily protected not only from passive, temporal decay but also from the retroactive interference produced by incoming stimuli ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • In case of false memories, this would imply necessary cognitive effort to manage the extra semantic and perceptual load induced by the encoded stimuli. (frontiersin.org)
  • Animal studies revealed that a single low dose of methylene blue enhanced long-term contextual memory - the conscious recall of the source and circumstances of a specific memory - and extinction memory, a process in which a conditioned response from stimuli gradually diminishes over time. (nutritionreview.org)
  • cortisol
  • The study, published in the Journal of Neuroscience , reveals that having high levels of cortisol--a natural hormone in our body whose levels surge when we are stressed--can lead to memory lapses as we age. (eurekalert.org)
  • Short-term increases in cortisol are critical for survival. (eurekalert.org)
  • But abnormally high or prolonged spikes in cortisol--like what happens when we are dealing with long-term stress--can lead to negative consequences that numerous bodies of research have shown to include digestion problems, anxiety, weight gain and high blood pressure. (eurekalert.org)
  • And when we get older, repeated and long-term exposure to cortisol can cause them to shrink and disappear. (eurekalert.org)
  • And although preliminary, the findings raise the possibility that short-memory decline in aging adults may be slowed or prevented by treatments that decrease levels of cortisol in susceptible individuals, says Radley. (eurekalert.org)
  • That could mean treating people who have naturally high levels of cortisol--such as those who are depressed--or those who experience repeated, long-term stress due to traumatic life events like the death of a loved one. (eurekalert.org)
  • According to Radley and Rachel Anderson, the paper's lead author and a second year-graduate student in psychology at the UI, short-term memory lapses related to cortisol start around age 65. (eurekalert.org)
  • Salivary levels of the stress hormone cortisol - a memory enemy of sorts - were significantly decreased in the humour group, researchers said. (jagran.com)
  • tasks
  • It is not clear whether the first class of VSTM tasks-which involves mental imagery-taps the same memory system as the last three classes of VSTM tasks. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Working memory is short-term and flexible, allowing the brain to hold a large amount of information close at hand to perform complex tasks. (psychcentral.com)
  • Twenty-six healthy participants, between the ages of 22 and 62, were enrolled in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to measure the effects of methylene blue on the human brain during working-memory and sustained-attention tasks. (nutritionreview.org)
  • stimulus
  • A stimulus trace may be temporarily retained either actively [i.e., in working memory (WM)] or by the weaker mnemonic process we will call passive short-term memory, in which a given stimulus trace is highly susceptible to "overwriting" by a subsequent stimulus. (pnas.org)
  • It has been suggested that WM is the more robust process because it exploits long-term memory (i.e., a current stimulus activates a stored representation of that stimulus, which can then be actively maintained). (pnas.org)
  • The results, which accord with the notion that WM relies on long-term memory, indicate that monkeys perform serial DMS in audition remarkably poorly and that whatever success they had on this task depended largely, if not entirely, on the retention of stimulus traces in the passive form of short-term memory. (pnas.org)
  • concentration
  • This effect takes part in the distinct part of the working memory network that controls attention and concentration. (medpagetoday.com)
  • I am worried that I am actually making things worse by dwelling on it, but can sinus pressure cause any memory type or concentration problems? (healingwell.com)
  • A cohort of 150 people was followed for a year to see if changes in their ketamine use could predict changes in their psychological well-being, memory and concentration. (healthcanal.com)
  • there are also deficits in attention and concentration, which in turn can impair memory encoding. (healthtap.com)
  • retention
  • However, if WM, itself, is dependent on LTM, and if the animals do not have LTM, then their short-term retention cannot be attributed to WM. (pnas.org)
  • Brain dynamics of memory formation were explored during encoding and retention intervals of a visual working memory task. (frontiersin.org)
  • verbal memory
  • These individuals also had poorer verbal memory. (healthcanal.com)
  • Midlife postmenopausal women who received daily treatment with estrogen showed improved oral reading and verbal memory performance, Yale School of Medicine researchers report in the September issue of the journal Menopause. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Shaywitz obtained data on oral reading using the Gray Oral Reading Test and on verbal memory using the Wechsler Memory Scales and the Sentence Span Test. (bio-medicine.org)
  • depression
  • And that in turn may have implications for how we work though brain-health issues where short-term memory is a problem, including Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, autism, depression and attention deficit disorder. (eurekalert.org)
  • lead
  • Understanding the mechanics of memory may lead to breakthroughs which could cure diseases like Alzheimer's. (slashdot.org)
  • Working
  • Researchers have long understood that stress has been the enemy of attention, disrupting focus and doing substantial damage to working memory - the short-term juggling of information that allows us to do all the little things that make us productive. (psychcentral.com)
  • Working memory (WM) is a system that enables the temporary maintenance and manipulation of information necessary to guide behavior ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Working memory is the ability to learn, retain and retrieve bits of information we all need in the short term: items on a grocery list or driving directions, for example. (eurekalert.org)
  • No significant difference between the concussed and non-concussed athletes and between the three age groups was observed on most of the neuropsychological tests except on the test of working memory. (momsteam.com)
  • however, the results for concussed subjects showed a significant reduction on neurophysiological testing, specifically a reduction in the amplitude (i.e. height) of a component of the EEG brain wave (P3b) thought to reflect the amount of attentional resources available for the updating of information in working memory. (momsteam.com)
  • In the article "Strengthened Effective Connectivity Underlies Transfer of Working Memory Training to Tests of Short-Term Memory and Attention" by Bornali Kundu, David W. Sutterer, Stephen M. Emrich, and Bradley R. Postle, which appeared on pages 8705-8715 of the May 15, 2013 issue, there were two errors. (jneurosci.org)
  • minutes
  • I was having 3-6 complex partials per day before my surgery on March 31st and I had that period for 10-15 minutes where I had more memory issues, word finding problems and such. (dailystrength.org)