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  • cassette
  • Focus was set on the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins expressed in the canalicular membrane of human hepatocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest and is possibly one of the oldest families with representatives in all extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABC transporters are considered to be with the ABC superfamily based on the sequence and organization of their ATP-binding cassette (ABC) domains, even though the integral membrane proteins may have evolved independently several times, and thus comprise different protein families. (wikipedia.org)
  • target
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More. (uniprot.org)
  • large
  • In this thesis, drug-transport protein interactions were explored using large, diverse datasets representing the chemical space of orally administered registered drugs. (diva-portal.org)
  • For the first time, an in silico model that described combined inhibition of Pgp, MRP2 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) was developed using a large, structurally diverse dataset. (diva-portal.org)
  • ABC uptake porters take up a large variety of nutrients, biosynthetic precursors, trace metals and vitamins, while exporters transport lipids, sterols, drugs, and a large variety of primary and secondary metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • archaea
  • The scientists cloned the membrane proteins from an archaea, a microorganisms that lives under extreme temperature conditions and isolate them. (phys.org)
  • Phylogenetic clustering of the proteins is primarily based according to phylum of the organisms of origin, but one or more clusters are observed for each phylogenetic kingdom (plants, animals, yeast, bacteria and archaea). (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The biological significance of regulated diffusion of membrane transport proteins is a subject of active investigation. (spie.org)
  • A team of scientists led by Prof. Dr. Susana Andrade from the Institute of Biochemistry of the University of Freiburg and the Cluster of Excellence BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies has now determined the transport properties of Amt proteins with great precision on the basis of electrophysiology tests on artificial lipid systems. (phys.org)
  • Water-hating equates to fat-friendly (or "lipophilic"), so lipids can also pass through biological membranes easily. (wordpress.com)
  • efflux
  • Fungal TRK proteins possess a large built-in regulatory domain and a highly conserved pair of transmembrane helices (TMSs 7 and 8, ahead of the C-terminus), postulated to facilitate intramembranal oligomerization.These fungal HAK proteins are chloride channels mediating efflux, a process suppressed by osmoprotective agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conformational change distorts the shape of the channel proteins sufficiently such that the cavity, or channel, opens to allow influx or efflux to occur across the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the functionally well-characterized members of the family are: KefB/KefC K+ efflux proteins of E. coli (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • When the lipid bilayer is impermeable to the molecule needing transport, active transport is also necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecule or ion to be transported (the substrate) must first bind at a binding site at the carrier molecule, with a certain binding affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means "water-hating", although oddly enough water can pass through it because it's a tiny molecule (this is called osmosis - movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane). (wordpress.com)
  • They each help a specific molecule through the plasma membrane. (wordpress.com)
  • 3. ATP-powered pumps are the membrane transport proteins responsible for active transport - they can move a molecule from the side with a lower concentration to the side with a higher concentration (i.e. against the concentration gradient). (wordpress.com)
  • This transport of molecule across membrane can be either passive (where movement is driven by a gradient) or active (where movement is against a gradient and requires energy). (wikibooks.org)
  • It requires work to pump a molecule across a membrane against its gradient. (wikibooks.org)
  • pathway
  • Ion permeability appears to occur through a pathway different than that used for water/glycerol transport and may involve a channel at the 4 subunit interface rather than the channels through the subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on 3-D structures of APC superfamily members, Rudnick (2011) has proposed the pathway for transport and suggested a "rocking bundle" mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • In terms of structure, the proteins that belong to this family consist of about 510 to 920 amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most recent families added include the PAAP (Putative Amino Acid Permease), LIVCS (Branched Chain Amino Acid:Cation Symporter), NRAMP (Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein), CstA (Carbon starvation A protein), KUP (K⁺ Uptake Permease), BenE (Benzoate:H⁺ Virginia Symporter), and AE (Anion Exchanger). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Secondary active transport involves the use of an electrochemical gradient, and does not use energy produced in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • We applied SPT to study the diffusion of membrane transport proteins in cell plasma membranes in which individual proteins are labeled with quantum dots at engineered extracellular epitopes. (spie.org)
  • AQP1 was freely mobile in cell membranes, showing rapid, Brownian-type diffusion. (spie.org)
  • As the creation and maintenance of chemiosmotic gradients require energy input from the cell, this is a form of active transport. (wikidoc.org)
  • Proteins of the Amt family transport ammonium across the lipid membrane of the cell. (phys.org)
  • The cell membrane surrounds and protects the cytoplasm. (wordpress.com)
  • But they can move in and out of the cell with the help of proteins that are embedded in the cell membrane. (wordpress.com)
  • But if they're needed somewhere else they can get through the cell membrane by a different process called exocytosis . (wordpress.com)
  • The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It results in fungal death by altering the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of Hh (Figure 3), a cell-surface transmembrane protein called Patched (PTCH) acts to prevent high expression and activity of a 7 membrane spanning receptor called Smoothened (SMO). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Major Intrinsic Protein (MIP) of the human lens of the eye (Aqp0), after which the MIP family was named, represents about 60% of the protein in the lens cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opening and closing of the channels are triggered by changing ion concentration, and hence charge gradient, between the sides of the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the four central α-subunits, there are also regulatory β-subunits, with oxidoreductase activity, which are located on the inner surface of the cell membrane and do not cross the membrane, and which are coassembled with the α-subunits in the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, these proteins are thought to play a role in regulated cell death, although functionality varies between families and individual members. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are important for cell survival during exposure to toxic metabolites, possibly because they can release K+, allowing H+ uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • PMID 21848655 High-affinity K+ transport in Arabidopsis: AtHAK5 and AKT1 are vital for seedling establishment and postgermination growth under low-potassium conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The results can, in a large part, be transferred to the Rhesus proteins from mammals," says Andrade as Amt proteins bear a close resemblance to the Rhesus proteins found in humans. (phys.org)
  • Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans and other mammals have two types of urea transport proteins, UT-A and UT-B. The UT-A proteins are important for renal urea handling and are produced by alternative splicing of the SLC14A2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • The lactose transport protein (LacS) from Streptococcus thermophilus bearing a single cysteine mutation, K373C, within the putative interhelix loop 10-11 has been overexpressed in native membranes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • phosphate
  • By some definitions, proteins that catalyze the ligation of phosphate or coenzyme groups to a catabolized chemical can be considered active transport proteins in that they drive the uptake of a chemical by maintaining a steep functional concentration gradient . (wikidoc.org)
  • This causes the protein to open up the intercellular world and the loss of the phosphate causes the pump to have a lower affinity for potassium and a higher affinity for sodium. (wikibooks.org)
  • potassium
  • Sodium-Potassium Pumps are an example of active transport. (wikibooks.org)
  • In this sodium/potassium pump, sodium is transferred out of the plasma membrane and potassium is pumped inside the plasma membrane. (wikibooks.org)
  • The sodium/potassium pump is active transport because there is coupled transport where one molecule's transfer is dependent on the other molecule's transfer. (wikibooks.org)
  • G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-binding protein beta subunits and GTP-binding protein gamma subunits. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Crystallographic structural studies of a potassium channel have shown that, when a potential difference is introduced over the membrane, the associated electric field induces a conformational change in the potassium channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kef channels are regulated by potassium transport and NAD-binding (KTN) domains that sense both reduced glutathione, which inhibits Kef activity, and glutathione adducts that form during electrophile detoxification and activate Kef. (wikipedia.org)
  • generalized transport reaction
  • The generalized transport reaction for Na+ channels is: Na+ (out) → Na+ (in) That for the degenerins is: Cation (out) → cation (in) ENaC consists of three different subunits: α, β, γ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized transport reaction for members of the KUP family is: K+ (out) + energy → K+ (in). (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by members of the CPA2 family is: M+ (in) + nH+ (out) ⇌ M+ (out) + nH+ (in). (wikipedia.org)
  • ammonium
  • Biochemists have long speculate on the mechanistic details of the ammonium transport family of proteins (Amt), which include the Rhesus protein factors, known as the mammalian blood group system. (phys.org)
  • The team discovered that a positive charge travels through the membrane: The membrane proteins do not transport the gas ammonia NH3 but rather the ammonium ion NH4+. (phys.org)
  • The AmhT homologue of Bacillus pseudofirmus transports both K+ and NH4+, influences ammonium homeostasis, and is required for normal sporulation and germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • sodium channels
  • The apical membranes of many tight epithelia contain sodium channels that are characterized primarily by their high affinity for the diuretic blocker amiloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial sodium channels facilitate Na⁺ reabsorption across the apical membranes of epithelia in the distal nephron, respiratory and reproductive tracts and exocrine glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Active transport is the movement of a substance across a membrane against its concentration gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • a protein, found, for example, in the terminal of a presynaptic neuron, which decreases the concentration of dopamine near the synapse by effecting its reuptake into the presynaptic neuron. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • therefore, the transported chemical can only move down a concentration gradient . (wikidoc.org)
  • Binding dependent active transport also moves the targeted chemical against a concentration gradient , but uses stored chemical energy, typically in the form of adenosine triphosphate , to power the transport. (wikidoc.org)
  • symporter
  • A symporter /coporter transports a chemical in the same direction as the electrochemical gradient, while an antiporter moves the target chemical in a direction opposite to the gradient. (wikidoc.org)
  • The N. crassa protein was earlier shown to be a K+:H+ symporter, establishing that the KUP family consists of secondary carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • uptake
  • Examples of one nutrient uptake and one multidrug extrusion protein from Helicobacter pylori are described. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Biology
  • On the other hand, recent advances in structural biology and functional analysis now enable investigators to address the molecular basis of transport in a physiological context, spurring rapid growth in the field. (grantome.com)
  • Molecular Membrane Biology 21 (3): 171-181.doi:10.1080/09687680410001720830. (wikipedia.org)