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  • processes
  • Nanofiltration technology is used in liquid phase membrane separation processes for separation of natural organic and inorganic substances. (pitchengine.com)
  • The water & wastewater treatment is the largest application industry of ceramic membranes and this trend is projected to continue in the near future due to the increasing issues of water scarcity, growing demand of quality water, and water desalination processes. (pitchengine.com)
  • In this role, Bothun partnered with the NSF Science & Technology Center for Environmentally Responsible Solvents & Processes (CERSP) where he conducted research in the areas of non-aqueous membrane separations and enzyme catalysis, and established an undergraduate research and development program at North Carolina A&T State University , a historically black university. (uri.edu)
  • It has been proposed that membrane rafts, which are sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched liquid-ordered (L o ) domains, segregate proteins in membranes and play critical roles in numerous processes in cells. (rupress.org)
  • Gas separation is one of the necessary processes for many industries such as petrochemical complexes and refineries . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Endocytosis underlies intra- and extracellular material trafficking in eukaryotes and is essential to protein metabolism, intercellular signaling, membrane remodeling and other cell regulatory processes. (concordia.ca)
  • Similar mechanisms may govern or contribute to other membrane shaping, invagination and budding processes that are involved in cellular material uptake, secretion, and cell shape remodeling. (concordia.ca)
  • The findings come amid intense scientific interest in the role liquid-liquid phase separation plays in promoting membrane-less organelle assembly as well as in performing the molecular processes that occur within them. (phys.org)
  • For instance, the evolution in time of an interface that separates two materials in the same state arise naturally in hydrodynamics (multi-fluids) while the dynamics of an interface that separates the same material in different states (multi-phases) arise naturally in material science in some processes like solidification or melting. (springer.com)
  • Chapkin, Robert 2018-06-02 00:00:00 The cell plasma membrane serves as a nexus integrating extra- and intracellular components, which together enable many of the fundamental cellular signaling processes that sustain life. (deepdyve.com)
  • Similar processes also dominate the creation of membranes. (phys.org)
  • The toxic peptides directly interfere with the assembly and function of these essential compartments by disturbing normal phase transitions, the processes that allow membrane-less organelles to assemble and function. (stjude.org)
  • This technique does not involve any other unit operation in the membrane preparation process, compared to surface modification processes, and is believed to enhance hydration and low-biofouling properties of the whole membrane. (cycu.edu.tw)
  • Membranes for oil-in-water and water-in-oil separation: In these related studies, the focus is laid on the design of membranes which particular surface properties allow recovering oily wastes produced in industrial processes. (cycu.edu.tw)
  • protein
  • SpoIIIE forms a protein channel that spans the two lipid bilayers of the septum and mediates chromosome translocation and reversible membrane fission during Bacilus subtilis sporulation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Electron microscopy on native membranes reveals the shape and potential function of protein machinery responsible for budding vesicles and viruses away from the cytoplasm. (elifesciences.org)
  • Multi-protein assemblies underlie the mesoscale organization of the plasma membrane. (mpg.de)
  • To visualize the vacuole membrane, we used the well-established protein marker Vph1, a component of the vacuole proton pump ATPase. (rupress.org)
  • Demixing of these proteins results in the formation of a protein condensate, which, by virtue of its composition and viscoelastic properties, binds to and deforms plasma membrane and cytosol. (concordia.ca)
  • Demonstration that phase separated condensates can perform mechanical work expands the repertoire of known functions of protein condensates to include the ability to do work at soft interfaces such as between the condensate and the membrane. (concordia.ca)
  • That suggests that NPM1 is probably not the only protein contributing to phase separation in the nucleolus, but our studies show that it certainly is a very important player. (phys.org)
  • That earlier work revealed how an ALS-causing mutation in an RNA-binding protein (hnRNPA1) disturbed the same phase separation process that leads to impairment of membrane-less organelles. (stjude.org)
  • The ALS-related toxic protein polyGR (red) insinuates itself into these liquid structures and impairs normal function. (stjude.org)
  • For instance, we investigate the ability of membranes to resist biofouling analyzing water flux recovery after exposing the membranes to protein/bacterial solutions. (cycu.edu.tw)
  • These inclusions share similarities with cellular protein/RNA structures such as P granules and nucleoli, which are phase-separated liquid compartments. (asm.org)
  • proteins
  • GPI-anchored proteins do not reside in ordered domains in the live cell plasma membrane. (mpg.de)
  • Hydrophobic mismatch sorts SNARE proteins into distinct membrane domains. (mpg.de)
  • All vacuolar membrane proteins tested segregated to one of two domains. (rupress.org)
  • We classified the domain patterns into three groups: (1) partial domains, which show a few gaps in Vph1-GFP distribution, (2) quasi-symmetrical domains, and (3) coalesced domains ( Fig. 1 A ). Remarkably, we found that all vacuole membrane proteins tested segregate into microdomains when cells reached Stat-phase. (rupress.org)
  • 12 proteins showed a similar distribution to Vph1-GFP, whereas two proteins (Gtr2p and Ivy1p), exhibited the reciprocal distribution on vacuolar membranes ( Fig. S1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that membrane invagination can arise from liquid-liquid phase separation (demixing) of proteins with prion-like domains (PLD) from the cytosol. (concordia.ca)
  • The largest membrane-less organelle, the nucleolus has been compared to a manufacturing hub, since one of its main functions is to assemble the ribosomes that produce all of the proteins required by cells. (phys.org)
  • Investigators showed that the structure of NPM1 lets it bind to a wide variety of proteins as well as to RNA in different, specific ways that promote phase separation and retain NPM1 and other proteins in the nucleolus. (phys.org)
  • These molecular networks are essential for phase separation as well as retention of NPM1 and other proteins in the nucleolus and ribosome assembly. (phys.org)
  • Most of these proteins contain a C-terminal putative transmembrane (TM) fragment and a pair of hydrophobic alpha helices (alpha5-alpha6) similar to the membrane insertion fragments of the ion-channel domain of diphtheria toxin and colicins. (jove.com)
  • Researchers at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have discovered the way toxic proteins linked to the most common forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) incapacitate membrane-less organelles inside cells. (stjude.org)
  • Our experiments revealed that the toxic arginine-containing peptides significantly interacted with RNA-binding proteins and components of numerous membrane-less organelles," added Taylor. (stjude.org)
  • In further experiments, the toxic peptides were revealed to alter the phase separation of proteins that contain regions with low-complexity sequences. (stjude.org)
  • NPM1 serves as the glue that holds proteins and RNA together in the nucleolus , a membrane-less organelle that depends on liquid phase separation to form and is the site for the biogenesis of ribosomes, the molecular factories that synthesize all proteins in cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Expression of the individual viral components of the replication machinery in cells demonstrates that the 3 viral proteins required for replication are sufficient to drive cytoplasmic phase separation. (asm.org)
  • molecules
  • Advanced materials for separation of bioactive molecules. (iitg.ac.in)
  • However, turning liquids into gases involves injecting a lot of energy, to overcome the attractive forces between the molecules of the liquid. (epsrc.ac.uk)
  • In the future, we want to make membranes by bit by bit through assembly of small units, and by creating well defined molecular structures where we know the positions of the molecules. (epsrc.ac.uk)
  • The nucleolus performs a specialized function, and NPM1 seems to have evolved to assist in the process by being able to phase separate with these two important and very different types of nucleolar molecules," said corresponding author Richard Kriwacki, Ph.D., a member of the St. Jude Department of Structural Biology. (phys.org)
  • These membranes are shaped spontaneously when soap-like molecules in water join together. (phys.org)
  • Biological membranes, and man-made variants, consist of amphiphilic molecules, of which soap is an example. (phys.org)
  • At the interface of that drop, the amphiphilic molecules, as it were, take each others' hands: first they form spheres, which then change into cylinders or plates, and then a closed membrane is created that encloses the nano-droplet. (phys.org)
  • wastewater
  • The ceramic membranes market in Asia-Pacific is projected to register one of the highest growth rates mainly due to the presence of emerging economies, such as China, Japan, and India as well as emerging activities in the water & wastewater treatment, pharmaceuticals, food & beverage, and biotechnology sectors. (pitchengine.com)
  • miscibility
  • Despite the partial THF-water miscibility, the two phases could be separated at total flow rates up to 40 mL/min at different flow ratios, using a PTFE membrane with 28 cm2 of active area. (dtu.dk)
  • lateral
  • Membrane orientation and lateral diffusion of BODIPY-cholesterol as a function of probe structure. (mpg.de)
  • cellular
  • Phase separation is increasingly recognized as responsible for cellular structures as diverse as processing bodies (P-bodies) and nucleoli and was recently demonstrated for rabies virus. (asm.org)
  • synthesis
  • We will use the membranes to deal with separation problems that current membranes cannot reach, such as synthesis of pharmaceuticals in continuously operating reactors, production of DNA and RNA for therapeutic needs, and the recovery of water from salty and contaminated feeds generated in the oil and gas industry. (epsrc.ac.uk)
  • Nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, which include some of the most significant human, animal, and plant pathogens extant, form inclusions that are sites of RNA synthesis and are not circumscribed by a membrane. (asm.org)
  • Formation
  • Formation of a phase-separated interface between homologous chromosomes during meiosis enables regulatory signals to spread in cis over long distances, illuminating the longstanding mystery of crossover interference. (elifesciences.org)
  • On the other hand, employing of a mixture of solvents in the casting solution can remove large pore formation during instantaneous phase separation and can convert finger like to sponge like pores . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Recent work highlights the role of IDPs in the formation of membrane-less organelles in cells, such as nucleoli, nuclear speckles and stress granules. (stjuderesearch.org)
  • Until now, the formation of 'micelles' was considered to be the first step in membrane formation. (phys.org)
  • With liquid-phase electron microscopy, they could make videos of the formation of liposomes. (phys.org)
  • organelle
  • The nucleolus is a membrane-less structure or organelle that takes up about 25 percent of the nucleus. (phys.org)
  • For positive-strand RNA viruses, RNA replication occurs in a virus-induced membrane-associated replication organelle. (asm.org)
  • nucleolus
  • Previous work showed that the unfolding of NPM1 may be one of the molecular mechanisms involved in dismantling the liquid-like structure of the nucleolus during cell division. (phys.org)
  • compartments
  • Rafts are proposed to form primarily in compartments enriched in sterols and sphingolipids, such as the plasma membrane (PM). (rupress.org)
  • Membrane-less organelles are transient compartments that are assembled as needed by cells to perform particular functions. (phys.org)
  • Here we show that replication compartments of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have the properties of liquid-like compartments that form by phase separation. (asm.org)
  • In this article, we present evidence that the VSV replication compartments form through phase separation. (asm.org)
  • yeast
  • In this paper, we show that micrometer-scale, stable lipid domains formed in the yeast vacuole membrane in response to nutrient deprivation, changes in the pH of the growth medium, and other stresses. (rupress.org)
  • Although endocytosis is usually driven by F-actin polymerization in yeast cells, membrane invagination can also occur through a yet unknown actin-independent mechanism when turgor pressure is relieved. (concordia.ca)
  • assemble
  • In order to perform this key function, plasma membrane components assemble into well-defined domains exhibiting distinct biochemical and biophysical properties that modulate various signaling events. (deepdyve.com)
  • biological
  • On the Binding Preference of Human Groups IIA and X Phospholipases A2 for Membranes with Anionic Phospholipids The Journal of Biological Chemistry. (jove.com)
  • depends
  • The efficacy of Raf kinase recruitment to the GTPase H-ras depends on H-ras membrane conformer-specific nanoclustering. (mpg.de)
  • Journal
  • Yung Chang , "A zwitterionic zP(4VP-r-ODA) copolymer for providing polypropylene membranes with improved hemocompatibility" , 2016 , Journal of Membrane Science , vol.501 , p.68-78. (cycu.edu.tw)
  • Surface
  • Surface tension-driven L-L separation was analyzed in general terms, critically evaluating different designs. (dtu.dk)