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  • biogenesis
  • Whereas the initial maturation steps are similar to the canonical phagosome biogenesis, the formation of an extensive tubular membrane network extending from the mature SCV is unique to Salmonella- infected host cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Vesicular mechanism can use lysosome-dependent pathway, microvesicle shedding or biogenesis of multivesicular bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vesicular
  • Soluble proteins can reach the surface of the cell both by non-vesicular and vesicular mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized into distinct membrane-bound organelles and vesicular structures, each with its own characteristic function and set of protein constituents. (upenn.edu)
  • Clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, are vesicular transport adaptor proteins associated with clathrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptins are distantly related to the other main type of vesicular transport proteins, the coatomer subunits, sharing between 16% and 26% of their amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • sialin
  • Researchers believe that sialin may also have other functions in brain cells, in addition to those associated with the lysosomes, but these additional functions are not well understood. (nih.gov)
  • This mutation replaces the protein building block (amino acid) arginine with the amino acid cysteine at position 39 of the sialin protein (written as Arg39Cys or R39C). (nih.gov)
  • hormones
  • In order for steroid hormones to cross the lipid bilayer of cells they must overcome energetic barriers that would prevent their entering or exiting the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • When steroid hormones are entering membranes free energy barriers exist when the functional groups are entering the hydrophobic interior of membrane, but it is energetically favorable for the hydrophobic core of these hormones to enter lipid bilayers. (wikipedia.org)
  • These energy barriers and wells are reversed for hormones exiting membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steroid hormones easily enter and exit the membrane at physiologic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though it is energetically more favorable for hormones to be in the membrane than in the ECF or ICF, they do in fact leave the membrane once they have entered it. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is an important consideration because cholesterol-the precursor to all steroid hormones-does not leave the membrane once it has embedded itself inside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between cholesterol and these hormones is that cholesterol is in a much larger negative Gibb's free energy well once inside the membrane, as compared to these hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • translocation
  • In general, the appearance of SMMs coincides with the onset of bacterial replication, and both phenomena are dependent on the translocation of effector proteins of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2)-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) ( 10 , 11 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • consists
  • Later and quite independently, Barbara Pearse discovered that the coat consists of a structural protein, clathrin, which has the unusual property of forming a regular lattice cage polyhedron ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The super protein complex, the Atg16L complex, consists of multiple Atg12-Atg5 conjugates. (wikipedia.org)
  • fuse
  • In order for the transport vesicle to accurately undergo a fusion event it must first recognize the correct target membrane then fuse with that membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • clathrin
  • Adaptins recognise and bind to clathrin through their hinge region (clathrin box), and recruit accessory proteins that modulate AP function through their C-terminal ear (appendage) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Most of these proteins are involved in processes in higher eukaryotes, however unconventional export mechanism was found in lower eukaryotes too. (wikipedia.org)
  • These help organize membrane components into localized areas that are involved in specific processes, such as signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • Two-fold structural symmetry in the arrangement of membrane helices for TM1-5 and TM6-10 (conserved Slc2 hydrophobic core) is suggested. (wikipedia.org)
  • transport
  • The exchange involves the active transport by a carrier protein called karyopherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by NRAMP family proteins is: Me2+ (out) + H+ (out) ⇌ Me2+ (in) + H+ (in). (wikipedia.org)
  • These protein energetically drive transport utilizing the electrochemical gradient of the target substrate (uniporter), or act as a cotransporter where transport is coupled to the movement of a second substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first structures were of the glycerol 3-phosphate/phosphate exchanger GlpT and the lactose-proton symporter LacY, which served to elucidate the overall structure of the protein family and provided initial models for understanding the MFS transport mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipophilicity of T3 and T4 requires their binding to the protein carrier thyroid-binding protein (TBG) (thyroxine-binding globulins, thyroxine binding prealbumins, and albumins) for transport in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1848, the German physiologist Emil du Bois-Reymond suggested the possibility of active transport of substances across membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first of these membrane transport proteins was named SGLT1 followed buy the discovery of SGLT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In primary active transport, the proteins involved are pumps that normally use the chemical energy in the form of ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Megalin
  • Auch der Progesteron-Carrier CCSP wird durch Megalin in Zellen aufgenommen, allerdings ist zur Endozytose von CCSP ein Co-Rezeptor notwendig. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In surface plasmon resonance analysis recombinant 24p3, a carrier of retinol, showed no affinity to Megalin. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Furthermore, it was endozytosed and degraded in lysosomes by Megalin expressing cells. (hu-berlin.de)
  • UniProt
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • aqueous
  • This substrate specificity is largely determined by specific side chains which line the aqueous pocket at the center of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)