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  • ions
  • Although qualitatively correct, the H-H model does not describe every type of excitable membrane accurately, since it considers only two ions (sodium and potassium), each with only one type of voltage-sensitive channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • voltage
  • As an example, the cardiac action potential illustrates how differently shaped action potentials can be generated on membranes with voltage-sensitive calcium channels and different types of sodium/potassium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1952 Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley developed a set of equations to fit their experimental voltage-clamp data on the axonal membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The probabilities for each gate are assumed to obey first-order kinetics d m d t = − m − m e q τ m {\displaystyle {\frac {dm}{dt}}=-{\frac {m-m_{\mathrm {eq} }}{\tau _{m}}}} where both the equilibrium value meq and the relaxation time constant τm depend on the instantaneous voltage V across the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • These voltage-sensitive dyes are lipophilic and preferably localized in membranes with their hydrophobic tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcelluar diffusion simply involves the movement of solutes based on a diffusion gradient moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, however, the cell membrane is a hydrophobic environment and will not allow the passive diffusion of charged, hydrophilic, or zwitterion molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Orange rectangles - membrane-impermeable anions (these arise from a variety of sources including proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane potential is negative because usually cells have a net negative charge due to leakiness of potassium channels and the large size of negatively charged macromolecules such as proteins and RNA. (academickids.com)
  • Slow-response dyes function by entering depolarized cells and binding to proteins or membranes. (thermofisher.com)