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  • ganglioside
  • CCR5 associates with membrane raft microdomains, and its polarization parallels redistribution of raft molecules, including the raft-associated ganglioside GM1, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored green fluorescent protein and ephrinB1, to the leading edge. (semanticscholar.org)
  • cell membranes
  • Although good evidence supports the coexistence within cell membranes of heterogeneous populations of lipid rafts, isolation of DRMs of discrete composition with the use of different detergents should not be considered as evidence for discrete raft domains in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • During the past 30 or so years a great deal of information has accumulated on the composition of various cell membranes and how this is related to the dif- ferent functions that membranes perform. (springer.com)
  • intracellular
  • Ligation of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) results in the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple intracellular proteins, mediated by the membrane-associated Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) Lck and Fyn and the soluble PTKs ZAP-70 and Syk. (biologists.org)
  • Signaling
  • Beyond the simple cataloguing of signaling events compartmentalized by these membrane microdomains, recent studies have revealed the surprisingly central importance of dynamic remodeling of membrane lipid domains to immune signaling. (jimmunol.org)
  • Together with the observation that RbohB, a defense-related NADPH oxidase that interacts with Rac1, is localized in microdomains, our data indicate that microdomains are required for chitin-induced immunity through ROS signaling mediated by the Rac1-RbohB pathway. (plantcell.org)
  • disruption
  • In particular, ganglioside GM1 and GPI-linked proteins were recruited upon integrin β1 engagement, and disruption of membrane microdomains blocked bacterial internalization. (biologists.org)
  • Disruption of microdomains enriched in sphingomyelin-cholesterol by treatment with sphingomyelinase selectively and dose dependently inhibited the Ca 2+ sensitivity and late kinetics of secretory vesicle fusion. (biologists.org)
  • Ceramide
  • Our rationale is that elucidating the relevant mechanism in ceramide-rich microdomains will define a general mechanism for cytokine secretion. (grantome.com)
  • Furthermore, the sphingomyelinase-driven generation of ceramide, contributing to the total membrane negative curvature, preserves the ability to fuse despite extensive cholesterol removal. (biologists.org)
  • sphingolipid
  • We suggest that (1) MBCD preferentially extracts cholesterol from outside, rather than within the sphingolipid microdomains and (2) this partly solubilizes GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the glycerophospholipid-rich membrane and releases sphingolipid microdomains in both vesicular and non-vesicular form. (biochemj.org)
  • soluble
  • We present a model that accounts for these unexpected results in which the degree of PKA-dependent phosphorylation is dictated by both the subcellular distribution of the phosphatases and the different accessibility of membrane-bound and soluble phosphorylated substrates to the cytosolic enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • The reason for this is primarily the difficulty of crystallizing membrane proteins which require strategies that differ from those used to crystallize soluble proteins. (springer.com)
  • To date only 50 or so membrane proteins have been characterised to atomic resolution by diffraction methods, in contrast to the vast data accumulated on soluble proteins. (springer.com)
  • receptor
  • Detergent-insoluble membranes from mouse cerebellum retained nearly all of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins--alkaline phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase, and the F3 protein--while excluding the majority of the plasmalemmal marker protein alkaline phosphodiesterase I. Although the inositol trisphosphate receptor was highly enriched in this detergent-insoluble fraction, neither amyloid precursor protein nor clathrin immunoreactivity could be detected. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Thus, in addition to the interaction between the T cell receptor (TCR) and its ligand, T cell activation depends on the combination of many other events involving costimulatory and inhibitory receptors, actin cytoskeleton and lipid membrane microdomains. (eurekaselect.com)
  • subdomains
  • We report a new role for LRRK2 in regulating autophagy and describe the recruitment of LRRK2 to the endosomal-autophagic pathway and specific membrane subdomains. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Sorting of GPI-anchored proteins to glycolipid-enriched membrane subdomains during transport to the apical cell surface. (semanticscholar.org)
  • distinct
  • We conclude that phosphatases can sculpt functionally distinct cAMP/PKA domains even in the absence of gradients or microdomains of this messenger. (nih.gov)
  • stable
  • The 58-amino-acid stable signal peptide (SSP) is myristoylated and spans the membrane twice, with both the N and C termini in the cytosol ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Synaptic membrane proteins form stable microdomains in early endosomes. (mpg.de)
  • virions
  • Furthermore, the lipidome analysis of HIV-1 particles revealed a marked enrichment of classical raft lipids and thus identified HIV-1 virions as an example for naturally occurring membrane microdomains. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • determinants
  • Cardiovasc Diabetol Myocyte membrane and microdomain modifications in diabetes: determinants of ischemic tolerance and cardioprotection Jake Russell Eugene F. Du Toit Jason N. Peart Hemal H. Patel John P. Headrick 0 0 School of Medical Science, Griffith University , Southport, QLD 4217 , Australia Cardiovascular disease, predominantly ischemic heart disease (IHD), is the leading cause of death in diabetes mellitus (DM). (paperity.org)