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  • formation
  • Thus, evidence is accumulating that tomosyn acts as a negative regulator for the formation of the SNARE complex, thereby inhibiting various vesicle fusion events. (rupress.org)
  • Tomosyn inhibits SNARE-dependent synaptic vesicle fusion via both N-terminal WD-40 repeat domain-mediated oligomerization of the SNARE complex and C-terminal VLD-based competitive inhibition of SNARE complex formation, resulting in potent inhibition of neurotransmitter release. (rupress.org)
  • Membrane redistribution which occurs during this cell swelling stage of the fusion process is often accompanied by the formation of a system of membrane tubules in the plane of expansion of the virus bridge. (biologists.org)
  • bilayers
  • It consists of consecutive steps including docking of the two bilayers, membrane destabilization, fusion of the outer leaflets (hemifusion), opening and expansion of the fusion neck and finally full fusion. (biophysics.org)
  • Fusion of the lipid bilayers is induced by bringing an optically trapped bead in contact with the coverslip surface while observing the bead's thermal motion with microsecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolution using a three-dimensional position detector. (utexas.edu)
  • syntaxin
  • Synaptobrevin/VAMP and syntaxin are believed to be involved in vesicular transport in most, if not all cells, while SNAP25 is present almost exclusively in the brain, suggesting that a ubiquitously expressed homolog of SNAP25 exists to facilitate transport vesicle/target membrane fusion in other tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • model membrane fusion
  • Keidel, A. , Bartsch, T. F . & Florin, E.-L. Direct observation of intermediate states in model membrane fusion. (utexas.edu)
  • Chakraborty H, Tarafdar PK, Bruno MJ, Sengupta T, Lentz BR (2012) Activation thermodynamics of poly(ethylene glycol)-mediated model membrane fusion support mechanistic models of stalk and pore formation. (springer.com)
  • genome
  • Viruses undergo dramatic structural reorganizations at many critical stages of their life cycles including during host cell invasion, membrane fusion, genome expulsion, assembly, and cell egress. (washington.edu)
  • stalk
  • The widely accepted model for membrane fusion suggests that there is an intermediate state in which the two contacting monolayers become continuous via an hourglass-shaped structure called a stalk. (sciencemag.org)
  • We were able to observe all fusion intermediates including transient fusion, formation of a stalk, hemifusion and the completion of a fusion pore. (utexas.edu)
  • Fusion intermediates are characterized by axial but not lateral confinement of the motion of the bead and independently by the change of its rate of diffusion due to the additional drag from the stalk-like connection between the two membranes. (utexas.edu)
  • Chakraborty H, Tarafdar PK, Klapper DG, Lentz BR (2013) Wild-type and mutant hemagglutinin fusion peptides alter bilayer structure as well as kinetics and activation thermodynamics of stalk and pore formation differently: mechanistic implications. (springer.com)
  • Biophysical models explain membrane fusion as a sequence of steps-including membrane contact, formation of a fusion stalk (merger of proximal monolayers), development of contact between distal monolayers that may or may not expand (hemifusion), and, finally, rupture of this diaphragm resulting in the opening of a fusion pore. (sciencemag.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Chakraborty H, Haldar S, Chong PL, Kombrabail M, Krishnamoorthy G, Chattopadhyay A (2015) Depth-dependent organization and dynamics of archaeal and eukaryotic membranes: development of membrane anisotropy gradient with natural evolution. (springer.com)
  • fluorescence
  • The chosen dyes form a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) pair, implying that excitation of the donor probe leads to emission of the acceptor once they are close enough, indicating fusion. (biophysics.org)
  • B ) v-liposome, which appears at the target membrane, stays, then disappears again, leaving no fluorescence at the target membrane. (nih.gov)
  • D-F ) The lateral spread of fluorescence indicates fusion. (nih.gov)
  • A ) Quantified peak fluorescence (black) and total fluorescence intensity (gray) for a fusion event. (nih.gov)
  • Abrams FS, London E (1993) Extension of the parallax analysis of membrane penetration depth to the polar region of model membranes: use of fluorescence quenching by a spin-label attached to the phospholipid polar headgroup. (springer.com)
  • In this paper, fluorescence spectroscopy is used to decipher distinct but complementary roles of these lipopeptides during early stages of membrane fusion. (rsc.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • Regardless of the complexity of the system, fusion essentially occurs due to the interplay of various interfacial forces, namely hydration repulsion, hydrophobic attraction and van der Waals forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The fusion glycoproteins that decorate the surface of enveloped viruses undergo dramatic conformational changes in the course of engaging with target cells through receptor interactions and during cell entry. (mdpi.com)
  • Inhibition
  • Published data on fusion inhibition by antibodies to the 'stem' of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) now allow us to incorporate into simulations the provision that some HAs are inactive. (harvard.edu)
  • outer
  • Recently, we have shown that in Gram-negative hosts, phage lysis also requires the disruption of the outer membrane (OM). (pnas.org)
  • In the first protocol, artificial fusogenic molecules (a liposome whose outer wall contains molecules that cause cell fusion) or ligands, synthesized by the collaborators from Coll ge de France, were incorporated into the lipid membranes. (nanowerk.com)
  • subsequently
  • This situation reflects the absence of well-defined protocols by which one can induce fusion in a controlled manner and subsequently study its dynamics with high temporal resolution. (nanowerk.com)
  • Membrane fusion was subsequently induced by the local addition of ions that form a complex between two fusogenic molecules embedded in the opposing membranes. (nanowerk.com)
  • Observation
  • Nanowerk News ) Max Planck scientists develop new methods for the controlled initiation of membrane fusion and its observation with high temporal resolution in the microsecond regime. (nanowerk.com)
  • Proteins
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • Rizo J and Sudhof TC (2012) The membrane fusion enigma: SNAREs, Sec1/munc18 proteins, and their accomplices, guilty as charged? (ed.ac.uk)
  • A structure of the COPI coat and the role of coat proteins in membrane vesicle assembly. (embl.de)
  • These glutamate autoreceptors are able to inhibit synaptic fatigue in order to prevent the detrimental physiological consequences that could result from dysfunctional blood pressure regulation in the aorta (not true) When synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters into the synapse that bind with post-synaptic membrane proteins to pass a signal, neurotransmitter re-uptake occurs to recycle neurotransmitters in the presynaptic cell in order to be released again. (wikipedia.org)
  • cargo
  • Although these results were consistent with the idea that syntaxin 3 must be restricted to the apical membrane to achieve maximal fidelity of apical cargo transport, it could not be excluded that the observed cargo mistargeting was an indirect effect of microtubule disruption. (rupress.org)
  • domain
  • The transporter consists of two subunits, each with a trans-membrane domain-nuclear binding domain (TMD-NBD) topology, with six TMHs in each TMD. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • For example, one would predict that mislocalization of the apical syntaxin 3 to the basolateral domain would allow the inappropriate fusion of apical transport vesicles with that domain and reduce the fidelity of polarized trafficking. (rupress.org)
  • role
  • Jesse F. McClendon made substantial contributions in a variety of fields, including invertebrate zoology, nutrition, life processes of cell membranes, the importance of pH control, the role of iodine in human health, and specifically its relation to prevention of goiters. (wikipedia.org)