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  • soluble
  • Methods to measure the thermodynamic stability of membrane proteins have largely followed methods developed for soluble protein folding ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, although there is now considerable experimental and theoretical validation of this approach for soluble proteins ( 2 ⇓ - 4 ), the validity of these extrapolations is not clear for measuring stability of membrane proteins. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, the bacterial yegS protein is a soluble cytosolic protein that contains the DAGKc domain in the N-terminal part. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Often, a polarized influx of soluble, extracellular signals dictates the asymmetric recruitment or activation of specific signaling proteins within the cell, creating a morphological asymmetry that translates into a functional one. (cellmigration.org)
  • phospholipids
  • In addition, it represents the synthetic machinery of phospholipids, the major constituents of the biological membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results suggest that phospholipids are produced mostly in the septal membranes and that CL and PE are kept from diffusing out to lateral ones. (asm.org)
  • The existence of heterogeneities in the lateral distribution of phospholipids and glycolipids was first revealed by a photo-cross-linking experiment in the membrane of the gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus luteus ( 60 ). (asm.org)
  • insulin
  • We hypothesized that skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of the muscle isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the enzyme that controls the entry of long-chain fatty acyl CoA into mitochondria, would enhance rates of fatty acid oxidation and improve insulin action in muscle in high-fat diet insulin-resistant rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, ceramide initiates inflammatory signaling pathways, leading to the activation of both c-jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor κB/inducer of κ kinase ( 10 ), which have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance ( 11 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A low-molecular-weight substance has been identified that mimics certain actions of insulin on metabolic enzymes. (springer.com)
  • helical
  • Apparently, long extrapolations of helical membrane protein unfolding free energies must be treated with caution. (pnas.org)
  • that bacteriorhodopsin (bR) can be refolded from an SDS-denatured state ( 5 ), SDS has been commonly used to study the folding of helical membrane proteins. (pnas.org)
  • genes
  • At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes , and post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location. (reliawire.com)
  • Recombinant
  • Each of the individual molecular steps along this cascade has been scrutinized separately in populations of cells or purified membrane preparations, or using reconstituted recombinant proteins by in vitro biochemical analysis, providing invaluable information about their inner molecular workings. (rupress.org)
  • To understand the mechanism of PKC targeting, we prepared caveolae lacking PKCα and measured the interaction of recombinant PKCα with these membranes. (rupress.org)
  • target proteins
  • It exerts most or all of its effects through interactions with secretory/endosomal target proteins that include either PtdIns3P-specific FYVE domains and/or phox (or PX) domains (see Table). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • hydrolysis
  • It belongs to the ABC protein superfamily whose members are characterized by conserved motifs in their nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), which are responsible for ATP hydrolysis. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Our data provide evidence for an additional nucleotide-binding site in close proximity to the Q-loop and the His-Switch, which is required for the recently discovered reverse adenylate kinase (rAK)-like reaction catalyzed by MsbA in addition to ATP hydrolysis. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • plasma
  • For a relatively long period of time, PLC activation was thought to serve the sole purpose of generating two messenger molecules, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P 3 ) and diacylglycerol by hydrolyzing the small pool of PtdIns(4,5)P 2 in the plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • One place on the plasma membrane where PKCα appears to be a resident protein is caveolae ( 24 , 25 ). (rupress.org)
  • Both cell fractionation and immunogold labeling of whole plasma membranes show that PKCα is highly concentrated in caveolae of unstimulated cells ( 25 ). (rupress.org)
  • Most is made, via PtdIns4P, by a PI4K and PIPkin-1 at the plasma membrane, secretory vesicles, Golgi and nuclei (and probably elsewhere). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In some cases, the composition of the plasma membrane (e.g. cholesterol-rich lipid rafts) reflects the functional polarization and acquisition of a leading and a trailing edge . (cellmigration.org)
  • whereas it is rapidly hydrolyzed elsewhere by the action of phosphatase and tensin homologue ( PTEN ), a lipid phosphatase and tumor suppressor, to maintain the gradient at the plasma membrane , . (cellmigration.org)
  • 2017
  • Compartmentalization into membrane bound organelles is a fundamental feature of eukaryotic cells ( Rout and Field, 2017 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • phospholipid
  • A study with pyrene-labeled phospholipid analogues has supported the heterogeneous distribution, suggesting a segregated distribution of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) domains in bacterial membranes ( 59 ). (asm.org)
  • Serine
  • Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is a stress-activated serine/threonine kinase that plays a vital role in various physiologically important biological processes, including cell growth, apoptosis, adhesion, motility, and angiogenesis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • In this review we focus specifically on those functions of PA that relate to its ability to regulate membrane transport events in eukaryotic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • cell
  • Cell Membrane and Cytoplasmic. (abcam.com)
  • Membranes of B. subtilis undergo dynamic rearrangements, which include formation of the polar septa and engulfment and forespore membranes during the sporulation process in addition to the rearrangements that occur during cell division in vegetative growth. (asm.org)
  • CL, in the presence of certain divalent cations, and PE have a propensity to form nonbilayer structures, which may introduce discontinuities in the bilayer membrane structure for dynamic membrane functions such as membrane fusion during cell division, formation of adhesion sites between the outer and the inner membranes, integration of proteins into the membrane, and stabilization of membrane proteins ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Cell-free expression and in meso crystallisation of an integral membrane kinase for structure determination. (sibcb.ac.cn)
  • Although the core principles of how membrane bound vesicles exchange material between the organelles of a cell have been known for some time ( Pfeffer, 2013 ), there remains much interest in the mechanism by which this process is regulated. (frontiersin.org)
  • The prevalence of basement membranes in the tissues of Eumetazoans means that most cell types require attachment to survive. (reliawire.com)