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  • EGFR
  • Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with enhanced activation of wildtype (hyperactive) Ras in breast cancer. (garvan.org.au)
  • Recently, we showed that in EGFR overexpressing A431 cells, which lack endogenous Annexin A6 (AnxA6), ectopic expression of AnxA6 stimulates membrane recruitment of p120GAP to modulate Ras signaling. (garvan.org.au)
  • Thus, association of AnxA6 with H-Ras containing protein complexes may contribute to regulate p120GAP/Ras assembly in EGFR overexpressing and ER-negative breast cancer cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • regulation
  • Thin filament-associated proteins which are implicated in the regulation and modulation of smooth muscle contraction. (expasy.org)
  • Modulates Rho GTPase-dependent F-actin polymerization, organization and assembly, is involved in polarized cell migration and in the positive regulation of ciliogenesis and cilia elongation (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • In addition to the molecular cell biology approaches discussed above we wish to understand how biophysical properties of membranes, in particular membrane tension, contributes to the regulation of microdomain formation. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, in utero electroporation experiments also indicated that regulation of the M-Ras-Lpd system by the GAP activity of Plexin is involved in the normal development of cortical dendrites in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • cytoskeleton
  • However, in contrast to the well studied roles of semaphorins and plexins in axonal guidance, signaling molecules linking M-Ras GAP to dendritic cytoskeleton remain obscure. (jneurosci.org)
  • guanine nucleot
  • Sec7-related guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) initiate vesicle budding from the Golgi membrane surface by converting the GTPase ARF to a GTP-bound, membrane-associated form. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • i) Molecules that directly bind RAS disrupt its interaction with guanine nucleotide exchange factors or with effectors such as the RAF serine-threonine kinases. (sciencemag.org)
  • effector proteins
  • Such intracellular niches of various pathogens are diverse, and biogenesis often depends on the delivery of bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In general, the appearance of SMMs coincides with the onset of bacterial replication, and both phenomena are dependent on the translocation of effector proteins of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2)-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) ( 10 , 11 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These effector proteins manipulate a large number of host cell processes and force the host cell to create a suitable microenvironment for Salmonella ( 7 , 12 , 13 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • molecular
  • Investigation into the molecular mechanisms allowing patterns of neuronal activity to induce plasticity in mammalian neurons and behavior has focused on the role of the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor receptors and a multitude of signaling proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. (yeastgenome.org)
  • This second of two volumes discusses subfamily proteins which function in molecular and vesicular transport mechanisms inside the cell. (indigo.ca)
  • actin
  • A number of actin-binding proteins, including spectrin, α-actinin and fimbrin, contain a 250 amino acid stretch called the actin binding domain (ABD). (expasy.org)
  • F-actin cross-linking proteins which are thought to anchor actin to a variety of intracellular structures. (expasy.org)
  • There are actin cross-linking/gelling proteins involved in calcium interactions and contractile properties of the cell that may contribute to replicative senescence. (expasy.org)
  • T-plastin, an actin-bundling protein found in intestinal microvilli, hair cell stereocilia, and fibroblast filopodia. (expasy.org)
  • It is a F-actin cross-linking protein. (expasy.org)
  • Lpd was expressed in F-actin-rich distal dendritic processes and was required for both basal and M-Ras-mediated dendrite development. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, the Ena/VASP-binding region within Lpd was required for dendrite development, and its membrane targeting was sufficient to overcome the Sema4D-mediated reduction of dendritic outgrowth and disappearance of F-actin from distal dendrites. (jneurosci.org)
  • inhibits
  • Annexin A6 inhibits Ras signaling in breast cancer cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • In ER-negative MDA-MB-436 cells, overexpression of p120GAP, but not CAPRI or a p120GAP mutant lacking the AnxA6 binding domain inhibits Ras/MAPK activity. (garvan.org.au)
  • mutant
  • Using a Salmonella mutant strain that does not form this unique membrane network as a reference, we identified a high-confidence set of host proteins associated with Salmonella -modified membranes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Both the R1276A and the R1391A mutant NF1-334 proteins were 1000-fold less active than wild-type NF1-334 in activating the GTPase when measured at saturating concentrations. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Neither arginine is absolutely essential, because the mutant NF1-334 proteins increase the intrinsic Ras.GTPase by at least 100-fold. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • However, with a greater appreciation of the complexities of RAS that thwarted past efforts, and armed with new technologies and directions, the field is experiencing renewed excitement that mutant RAS may finally be conquered. (sciencemag.org)
  • RAF and PI3K), (iv) synthetic lethal interactors of mutant RAS, and (v) RAS-regulated metabolic processes in cancer cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Early approaches considered for developing RAS inhibitors were guided by understanding the biochemical defects of mutant RAS proteins ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • Ras Signalling on the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi Nature Cell Biology. (jove.com)
  • We show that oncogenic H-Ras and N-Ras engage Raf-1 on the Golgi and that endogenous Ras and unpalmitoylated H-Ras are activated in response to mitogens on the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), respectively. (jove.com)
  • pleckstrin-homology
  • Lamellipodin (Lpd) has been identified as an Ena/VASP family protein-interacting molecule harboring a Ras association (RA) domain, pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain, and proline-rich region. (jneurosci.org)
  • cell proliferation
  • AnxA6 knock-down in MDA-MB-436 increases Ras activity and cell proliferation in anchorage-independent growth assays. (garvan.org.au)
  • Animal Spermatogenesis-associated protein 4 (SPATA4), involved in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis [ 4 ]. (expasy.org)
  • function
  • An understanding of the origin and function of these membranes is crucial for the development of new treatment strategies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is written for Graduates and Professors in Biochemistry and Cell Biology interested in the mechanism and function of small G-proteins but are extremely valuable for those who want to move into the field. (indigo.ca)
  • The unsuccessful attempts to develop farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) as anti-RAS drugs (see below) resulted from the misconception that the four RAS proteins were identical in function. (sciencemag.org)
  • Palmitoylation, the only known reversible lipid modification of proteins, is an important regulator of protein localisation and function. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • It is not well understood which proteins are modified by individual PATs in cells, how they can selectively recognise substrate proteins and what effect palmitoylation has on the function of these proteins. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • This research will further our understanding of how proteins dynamically associate with membranes and how this affects their function in health and disease. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • tyrosine
  • The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif of FcγRIIB1 represents a docking site for the SH2 domains of at least two proteins, the tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 (( 16 )) and the inositide phosphatase SHIP (( 17 )), either of which may mediate inhibitory effects. (rupress.org)
  • cytosolic
  • Nitrogen Cavitation and Differential Centrifugation Allows for Monitoring the Distribution of Peripheral Membrane Proteins in Cultured Cells Mo Zhou 1 , Mark R. Philips 1 1 Langone Medical Center, New York University Here we present protocols for detergent-free homogenization of cultured mammalian cells based on nitrogen cavitation and subsequent separation of cytosolic and membrane-bound proteins by ultracentrifugation. (jove.com)
  • Cellular
  • It affects a plethora of cellular processes including protein trafficking, stability and signalling and is therefore important for all cell types, and organisms from yeast to humans. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • pathways
  • These in vivo data support the model that specific MAGUK proteins couple the NMDA receptor to distinct downstream signaling pathways. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, Ras signalling is not limited to the PM, but also proceeds on the endomembrane. (jove.com)