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  • murine
  • Ji-Yoon Noh and colleagues at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia developed a protocol that restores endogenous GATA1 levels in MEPs derived from murine ES cells in which Gata1 mRNA is inducibly targeted for degradation, resulting in the generation of megakaryocytes capable of platelet generation. (jci.org)
  • Specifically, murine ES cells were engineered to conditionally suppress Gata1 in the presence of doxycycline (dox), as the result of a Gata1 -targeting shRNA under the control of a tetracycline response element. (jci.org)
  • In the presence of dox, these engineered murine ES cells expressed hematopoiesis-supporting factors, developed an MEP-like profile, and expanded robustly. (jci.org)
  • The accompanying movie shows platelets from murine ES cell-derived MEPs (green) incorporating into developing thrombi at the site of arteriole injury. (jci.org)
  • apoptosis
  • It has been hypothesized that it acts as a survival factor in tumor cell lines, preventing therapeutic-induced apoptosis and rendering the tumor cells more resistant to current treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryos
  • In developing embryos, blood formation occurs in aggregates of blood cells in the yolk sac, called blood islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generation of BFU-e and CFU-e progenitors was shown to be normal in rodent embryos knocked out for either Epo or EpoR. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • These membrane-bound proteins are produced by neighbouring stromal cells and osteoblasts , thus requiring direct contact between these cells and osteoclast precursors . (wikipedia.org)
  • GATA1
  • Here, we engineered ES cells from WT mice to express a doxycycline-regulated (dox-regulated) shRNA that targets Gata1 transcripts for degradation. (jci.org)
  • Dox withdrawal in combination with multilineage cytokines restored GATA1 expression, resulting in differentiation into erythroblasts and megakaryocytes. (jci.org)
  • B) Gene expression of Gata1 and Tgfbr3 in each single cell is plotted in the PCA analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Erythroid transcription factor also known as GATA-binding factor 1 or GATA-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GATA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • However, Ueno and Weissman provided the earliest contradiction to the hemangioblast theory when they saw that distinct ES cells mixed into a blastocyst resulted in more than 1 ES cell contributing to the majority of the blood islands found in the resultant embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This view was first challenged by the 2002 discovery by the Muller-Sieburg group in San Diego, who illustrated that different stem cells can show distinct repopulation patterns that are epigenetically predetermined intrinsic properties of clonal Thy-1lo Sca-1+ lin− c-kit+ HSC. (wikipedia.org)
  • erythroblasts
  • The production of erythroblasts from total BFU-E, purified TβRIII 10%hi , and TβRIII 10%lo BFU-E cells was quantified over time. (nih.gov)
  • functional
  • Projects are ongoing on the functional effects of BM transplantation and to determine the cells and mechanisms responsible for this engraftment. (yale.edu)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • Differentiation of marrow-derived cells into epithelial cells The focus on plasticity is based on a very exciting discovery in the Krause laboratory that bone marrow derived cells are capable of differentiating into non-hematopoietic cells throughout the body. (yale.edu)
  • It is formed by both intrinsic and extrinsic neurons innervating the gut, enteric glia, and innervated sensory epithelial cells, such as enteroendocrine cells. (jci.org)
  • This Review series summarizes recent knowledge on function and disease of nerves, glia, and sensory epithelial cells of the gut in eight distinctive articles. (jci.org)
  • erythroblast
  • Blocking TGF-β signaling using a receptor kinase inhibitor increases early BFU-E cell self-renewal and total erythroblast production, suggesting the usefulness of this type of drug in treating Epo-unresponsive anemias. (nih.gov)
  • Critical functions in the developing red blood cell (erythroblast) include the establishment of the erythroid cytoskeleton, enzymes that mediate heme biosynthesis, and polypeptide chains that constitute the hemoglobin tetramer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent differentiation stages (proerythroblast to orthochromatic erythroblast) involve a decrease in cell size and eventual expulsion of the nucleus, and are likely dependent upon EpoR signaling only for their survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • RANKL activates NF-κβ (nuclear factor-κβ) and NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated t cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1) through RANK . (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphopoiesis
  • Lymphopoiesis (lĭm'fō-poi-ē'sĭs) (or lymphocytopoiesis) is the generation of lymphocytes, one of the five types of white blood cell (WBC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphopoiesis is now usually used interchangeably with the term "lymphocytopoiesis" - the making of lymphocytes - but other sources may distinguish between the two, stating that "lymphopoiesis" additionally refers to creating lymphatic tissue, while "lymphocytopoiesis" refers only to the creation of cells in that tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The partial loss of or loss of function of any white blood cell type is a serious health matter and lymphopoiesis is absolutely necessary for life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphopoiesis continues throughout life and so progenitor cells and their parent stem cells must always be present. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Since that time, we have focused on several important questions regarding this plasticity including which cell populations in the bone marrow are responsible for this plasticity, and how these cells are regulated. (yale.edu)
  • 05.). (D) Total BFU-E (c-Kit + CD71 10% lo ) cells were separated by flow cytometry, and the TβRIII 10%hi and TβRIII 10%lo populations were subsequently isolated by FACS. (nih.gov)
  • human
  • The megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cell (or MEP, or hMEP to specify human) is a cell that gives rise to megakaryocytes and erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with these findings in human cells, knock out of MKL1 in mice leads to reduced platelet counts, and reduced ploidy in bone marrow megakaryocytes. (yale.edu)
  • An osteoclast is a large multinucleated cell and human osteoclasts on bone typically have five nuclei and are 150-200 µm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the most common ones are: EVI_1a, EVI_1b, EVI_1c, EVI_1d, and EVI_3L are all variants in the 5' untranslated region, and all except EVI_1a are specific to human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rp9 variant is quite common in human and mouse cells, lacks 9 amino acids in the repression domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (wikipedia.org)
  • hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • RBCs
  • This project aims to study iron deficiency anemia as a model of benign elevated platelet and reduced red blood cells (RBCs), with a novel focus on the molecular mechanisms of the MEP biphenotypic fate decision. (aabb.org)
  • The hemangioblast theory, which posits that the RBCs and ECs derive from a common progenitor cell, was developed as researchers observed that receptor knockout mice, such as flk1-/-, exhibited defective RBC formation and vessel growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood cell
  • The number of leukocytes in the blood is often an indicator of disease , and thus the white blood cell count is an important subset of the complete blood count . (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "white blood cell" derives from the physical appearance of a blood sample after centrifugation . (wikipedia.org)
  • It must balance enormous production needs (more than 500 billion blood cells are produced every day) with the need to precisely regulate the number of each blood cell type in the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • These may have dozens of nuclei, and typically express major osteoclast proteins but have significant differences from cells in living bone because of the not-natural substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changes can often be tracked by monitoring the presence of proteins on the surface of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • MKL1, identified at the C-terminus of the t(1;22) translocation specific to acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, is highly expressed in differentiated muscle cells and promotes muscle differentiation by activating serum response factor (SRF). (yale.edu)
  • demonstrate that the inflammasome response promotes infection by the parasite L. major by skewing T helper cell polarization. (jci.org)
  • Cycle
  • So far, there is no sufficient evidence that in vivo, EpoR signaling can induce erythroid progenitors to undergo cell division, or whether Epo levels can modulate the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • CFU-e progenitors enter the cell cycle at the time of GATA-1 induction and PU.1 suppression in a developmental manner rather than due to EpoR signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these data suggest that EpoR in erythroid differentiation may function primarily as a survival factor, while its effect on the cell cycle (for example, rate of division and corresponding changes in the levels of cyclins and Cdk inhibitors) in vivo awaits further work. (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. (wikipedia.org)