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  • HDAC4
  • The class II HDACs (HDAC4, -5, -7, and -9) contain a characteristic MEF2-interacting domain at their N-termini [ 3 , 4 ] and an HDAC catalytic domain at their C-termini. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MAPK
  • Then, we progressed backwards up the signal transduction pathway and showed that the GTPase Rac1/Cdc42 and the protein Gα12 control the MAPK module, ATF2 phosphorylation, and AARE-dependent transcription. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • genes
  • 2. The method of claim 1 , wherein the expression levels of the at least ten genes indicative of recurrence of HCC are determined by at least one assay selected from the group consisting of: DNA microarray, oligonucleotide microarray, northern blotting, in situ hybridization, RNase protection assay, and reverse transcription polymerase-chain reaction assay. (google.com)
  • Taken together, our data reveal a new signaling pathway activated by amino acid starvation leading to ATF2 phosphorylation and subsequently positively affecting the transcription of amino acid-regulated genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These two kinases play a major role in the control of protein synthesis ( 71 ), transcription, and mRNA turnover of specific genes ( 24 , 46 , 69 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1 2 Homeobox genes exist in a wide variety of metazoan genomes and encode sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factors that play fundamental roles in the temporal and spatial pattern formation or in the commitment of cells to specific developmental pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • RPS6KA5/MSK1 and RPS6KA4/MSK2 play important roles in the rapid induction of immediate-early genes in response to stress or mitogenic stimuli, either by inducing chromatin remodeling or by recruiting the transcription machinery. (proteopedia.org)
  • At the late larval stage, Tt.dachshund , Tt.Limpet , and Tt.Mef2 showed expression in nearly all mesoderm cells, while all other genes were localized to specific regions of the mesoderm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular
  • The homology of the mesoderm among bilaterians is supported by the deployment of a conserved set of transcription factors in the specification and differentiation of the mesoderm in the classical model systems of the mouse, Drosophila , and Caenorhabditis elegans , where the molecular basis for mesoderm development has been investigated in the greatest detail [ 3 - 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ligands
  • Such phosphorylation is required for ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding of TGF-alpha family ligands, which results in the activation of EGFR signaling and cell proliferation. (proteopedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • MAPK14 is one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress leading to direct activation of transcription factors. (proteopedia.org)
  • cell
  • Other members of this family, TM4SF1 (also known as L6-Ag) and TM4SF5, have been shown to be upregulated in multiple tumors and involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cell migration. (jove.com)
  • As for cell-type specification, lineage-restricted transcription factors play an important role in lineage commitment and tissue differentiation. (ahajournals.org)
  • member
  • Transmembrane 4 L six family member 4 (TM4SF4) is a member of the tetraspanin L6 domain family. (jove.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the cells are differentiated in a growth environment comprising activin, an insulin-like growth factor and a member of the TGFIβ family. (google.com)
  • receptor
  • We assess the importance of epidermal growth factor receptor family signalling through ERK1/2 in models of breast cancer progression and the influence of ERK1/2 on its substrate, the oestrogen receptor, in this context. (biomedcentral.com)
  • result
  • Skeletal muscle displays a great deal of plasticity and may have different morphofunctional characteristics as a result of the influences of various intrinsic and extrinsic factors including temperature, nutrition, fasting, and photoperiod. (hindawi.com)
  • cells
  • 2016). Differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to cardiomyocyte-like cells is regulated by the combined low dose treatment of transforming growth factor-β1 and 5-azacytidine. (springer.com)