• Climatic and soil parameters were characterized and bark samples were analyzed for content of the four major alkaloids using HPLC-UV to explore the utility of evolutionary history (phylogeny) in determining variation within species of these compounds under natural conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and cinchonidine) and their total content. (frontiersin.org)
  • The medicinal value of Cinchona bark was first discovered in Loxa (now Loja, Ecuador) in the seventeenth century by Jesuit monks, and soon exports of different varieties of Cinchona pubescens Vahl (red bark) from South America to Europe were reaching half a million kilograms bark per year ( Roersch van der Hoogte and Pieters, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Not long after French scientists Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaim√© Caventou isolated quinine from cinchona bark in 1820, the governments of Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru unsuccessfully attempted to embargo the exportation of cinchona seeds, seedlings, or trees. (cdc.gov)
  • The deforestation, coupled with severe political instability in the region (where a small handful of countries endured 43 revolutions in the 30 years between 1820 and 1850 ) was turning quinine into a very precious commodity. (everything2.com)
  • By the 1820 s, researchers in France had isolated the medicinal compound from the bark. (everything2.com)
  • As many Protestant s had no love for the Jesuits, many referred to quinine as the "powder of the devil " and refused the cure. (everything2.com)
  • An introduction to medicinal plant, and describe how it is useful to us. (medicinalplantsindia.com)
  • Finally, Chapter 9 discusses the importance of collections in medicinal plant research leading into the future. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The listing of medicinal properties of each plant summarizes the documented actions and properties that have been attributed to the plant either through clinical laboratory research or practitioner uses and observations (and it s for all parts of the plant as well). (rain-tree.com)
  • Obtaining some of the bark of this amazing plant , he treated her and the Countess of Chichon became the first European on record to receive quinine. (everything2.com)
  • There are some plant chemicals which have medicinal effects which are entirely coincidental: St John's Wort for example contains some molecules with interesting effects on animals , which are probably quite unrelated to its role in the plant (it absorbs light). (discovermagazine.com)
  • The chemical method uses herbicides diluted in water and sprayed on hack marks on the bark. (wikipedia.org)
  • An effective, robust, and inexpensive grinding device for the grinding of herb samples like bark and roots was developed by rebuilding a commercially available coffee grinder. (worldwidescience.org)
  • To blunt its intense bitterness, quinine was mixed with wine and other flavorings. (sfgate.com)
  • In 1846, while vying for a government reward for creating a palatable quinine-delivery vehicle, Parisian chemist Joseph Dubonnet introduced the first successful quinquina, flavored with chamomile, green coffee beans, cinnamon and more. (sfgate.com)
  • It took an army of researchers, working with primitive methods and equipment, to unlock the secret of the bark. (everything2.com)
  • Quinine, the medicine extracted from the bark by French researchers Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaim√© Caventou, was not isolated and named until 1817. (thenibble.com)
  • To make the tonic more palatable, they added gin to the mixture, and the gin and tonic was born-a medicinal necessity before it became the archetypal drink of the British Empire. (thenibble.com)
  • For his part, the doctor, who was a bit of an opportunist, imported the bark to Europe and made a modest fortune. (everything2.com)
  • The saying a spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down is perhaps never more appropriate that with quinine. (herbsociety-stu.org)
  • If this occurs, drink regular water until the symptoms pass and the quinine flushes from your system. (ehow.co.uk)