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  • complex
  • We show here that SBF then recruits the SRB/mediator complex and that this process occurs in the absence of Cdk1 activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • When a cell is exposed to ionizing radiation, its chromatin can be damaged with DSB, triggering the DDR which starts with the MRN complex recruiting ATM kinase to the exposed H2AX histones on the damaged DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex functions upstream of ATM in mammalian cells and induces conformational changes that facilitate an increase in the affinity of ATM towards its substrates, such as CHK2 and p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescence
  • This project specifically aimed to study the connection between modulation of membrane voltage and cell senescence. (tufts.edu)
  • Atherosclerosis and heart failure are particularly correlated with aging-related cardiovascular senescence, that is, the inability of cells to progress in the mitotic program until completion of cytokinesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Pathologies, as atherosclerosis, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiomyopathy, are often linked to the failure of cardiovascular tissue cells to reenter the cell cycle, namely, senescence, due to endogenous or exogenous causes. (hindawi.com)
  • This review will focus on the cardiovascular pathologies correlated to senescence, the effect of aging on the cardiac endogenous resources of stem cells, and the potential strategies of regenerative medicine to be applied to maintain the heart younger and healthier. (hindawi.com)
  • Mitotic cells might undergo senescence by failing to replicate. (hindawi.com)
  • While it is commonly accepted as an aging-related phenomenon, senescence might happen also during the embryonic development with the biological meaning of replacing transient structures or specific cell types with other ones [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • kinase
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that appears to be involved in microtubule formation and/or stabilization at the spindle pole during chromosome segregation. (senescence.info)
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such inhibitor is imatinib mesylate, which occupies the tyrosine kinase domain and inhibits BCR-ABL's influence on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was achieved by the ability of Ochnaflavone to regulate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The MDC1 gene encodes the MDC1 nuclear protein which is part of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, the mechanism through which eukaryotic cells respond to damaged DNA, specifically DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) that are caused by ionizing radiation or chemical clastogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • response to DNA damage
  • Recent work exploring p21 activation in response to DNA damage at a single-cell level have demonstrated that pulsatile p53 activity leads to subsequent pulses of p21, and that the strength of p21 activation is cell cycle phase dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is required to activate the intra-S phase and G2/M phase cell cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • CDK inhibitors, cyclins, and CDKs themselves) is a common mechanism responsible for out-of-control cell growth, the main characteristic in cancer. (springer.com)
  • MDC1
  • Inhibition or loss of MDC1 protein through studies with siRNA on human cells or knockout studies in mice have shown several defects at both the cellular and organismal level. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cells
  • β1 integrin is important for adhesion to the extracellular matrix, and could be important for the initial attachment to endothelial cells as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Invading cancer cells send out protrusions that reach down between neighboring endothelial cells to contact the underlying basement membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer cells then spread out on this extracellular matrix so that the endothelial cells retract, and allow the invaders to insert themselves between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc42 therefore promotes the attachment of cancer cells to both endothelial cells and the underlying basement membrane during transendothelial migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression
  • Impact of cyclin E overexpression on Smad3 activity in breast cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was proposed that the overexpression of Cdc42 can promote filopodia formation in HeLa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc42 overexpression significantly improved the ability of cervical cancer cells to migrate, possibly due to improved pseudopodia formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Experiments looking at CDK2 activity within single cells have also shown p21 to be responsible for a bifurcation in CDK2 activity following mitosis, cells with high p21 enter a G0/quiescent state, whilst those with low p21 continue to proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • At the molecular level, in fact, a gradual weakening of the cellular processes regulating cardiovascular homeostasis occurs in aging cells. (hindawi.com)
  • It was originally identified in S. cerevisiae (yeast) as a mediator of cell division, and is now known to influence a variety of signaling events and cellular processes in a variety of organisms from yeast to mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoters
  • Cdk1 triggers association of RNA polymerase to cell cycle promoters only after recruitment of the mediator by SBF. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Inhibition of BRD4 shortcuts the communication between SEs and target promoters with a subsequent cell-specific repression of oncogenes to which cancer cells are addicted and cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • regulatory
  • p21 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • siRNA
  • Furthermore, the knock-down of S100A11 via siRNA reduces the sister-chromatid exchange and the viability of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • HeLa
  • Cdc42 expression was gradually increased showing significant difference and was significantly higher in HeLa cells than in regular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The migration ability of HeLa cells transfected with Cdc42 was higher than that of non-transfected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • transition
  • Cyclin E binds to G1 phase Cdk2, which is required for the transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle that determines initiation of DNA duplication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roughly speaking, in the cell cycle Cdc4 function is required for G1/S and G2/M transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Our results revealed that 6-gingerol treatment significantly reduced the cell viability of human colon cancer cell, LoVo, in a dose-dependent manner. (hindawi.com)
  • Perturbations in the regulation of the core cell cycle machinery are frequently observed in human cancers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Some of the most common ones are: EVI_1a, EVI_1b, EVI_1c, EVI_1d, and EVI_3L are all variants in the 5' untranslated region, and all except EVI_1a are specific to human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rp9 variant is quite common in human and mouse cells, lacks 9 amino acids in the repression domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Δ324 found at low levels in human and mouse cells - an alternative splice variant encoding an 88kDa protein lacking zinc fingers 6 and 7 Δ105 variant is unique to mice, and results in a protein truncated by 105 amino acids at the acidic C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human PMS2 is expressed at very low levels and is not believed to be strongly cell cycle regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout the cell cycle the DNA is monitored for damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATM plays a role in cell cycle delay after DNA damage, especially after double-strand breaks (DSBs). (wikipedia.org)
  • detectable
  • The 145kDa isoform is the most-studied, encoding 1051 amino acids, although there are many EVI1 fusion products detectable in cells expressing EVI1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • Pursuant to this, reprimo's expression during the G2 phase of the cell cycle ultimately results in the reduction of Cdc2 expression, and in the inhibition of the nuclear translocation of cyclin B1 which is necessary to its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • glial cells
  • In addition to pro-inflammatory mediators, they observed that retinal cells also demonstrated increased cell activation as evidenced by augmented expression of GFAP, which is due to the activation of Muller glial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the central nervous system, glial cells include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells and microglia, and in the peripheral nervous system glial cells include Schwann cells and satellite cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroscience currently identifies four main functions of glial cells: To surround neurons and hold them in place To supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons To insulate one neuron from another To destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • However 21st century neuroscience has recognized that glial cells do have some effects on certain physiological processes like breathing, and in assisting the neurons to form synaptic connections between each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • (wikipedia.org)
  • Glial cells make up about half the total volume of the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • These PNS glia include Schwann cells in nerves and satellite glial cells in ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research involving glial cells in the human cochlea proposes that these cells are the common precursor to both mature Schwann cells and satellite glial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the peripheral glial cells located along the peripheral processes expressed NGFR, indicating a phenotype distinct from the peripheral glial cells located along the central processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radial glial cells originate from the transformation of neuroepithelial cells that form the neural plate during the early phases of pre-natal neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the late stages of neurogenesis, radial glial cells divide asymmetrically in the ventricular zone, generating a new radial glial cell, as well as a postmitotic neuron or an intermediate progenitor (IPC) daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radial glial cells show high levels of calcium transient activity, which is transmitted between RGCs in the ventricular zone and along the radial fibers bidirectionally to/from the cortical plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect is not related to TNF-α inhibition since potent TNF-α inhibitors such as rolipram and pentoxifylline did not inhibit myeloma cell growth nor angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediary
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCoA-2 is also frequently called glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1), steroid receptor coactivator-2 (SRC-2), or transcriptional mediators/intermediary factor 2 (TIF2). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • binding protein
  • Background Cardiac stress may trigger production of the 40\kDa peptide fragment produced from the amino terminus from the cardiac myosin\binding protein C. function, cell viability, hypertrophy, or possibility of success. (biomasswars.com)
  • neural
  • Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9 (NEDD-9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEDD9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • first described a sequence tag corresponding to the NEDD9 3′ untranslated region based on the cloning of a group of genes predominantly expressed in the brain of embryonic, but not adult mice, a group of genes designated neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are derived from the earliest wave of mononuclear cells that originate in yolk sac blood islands early in development, and colonize the brain shortly after the neural precursors begin to differentiate. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • zinc
  • Δ324 found at low levels in human and mouse cells - an alternative splice variant encoding an 88kDa protein lacking zinc fingers 6 and 7 Δ105 variant is unique to mice, and results in a protein truncated by 105 amino acids at the acidic C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • In vitro wound scratch assay revealed that CRE treatment inhibited cell motility and cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. (qxmd.com)
  • The chimeric gene of AML1-MDS1-EVI1 (AME) formed by the chromosomal translocation (3;21)(q26;q22) has also been shown in vitro to upregulate the cell cycle and block granulocytic differentiation of murine hematopoietic cells, as well as to delay the myeloid differentiation of bone marrow progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Gene expression can be stably altered through epigenetic changes which not only allow cells and organisms to quickly respond to changing environmental stimuli but also confer the ability of the cell to "memorize" these encounters once the stimulus is removed. (jove.com)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, studies in cells have shown that ceramide-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha α (TNFα) and palmitate induce the ceramide-dependent removal of a phosphate group (dephosphorylation) of the retinoblastoma gene product RB and the enzymes, protein kinases B (AKT protein family) and C α (PKB and PKCα). (wikipedia.org)
  • cloned the gene encoding a protein hyperphosphorylated following ligation of β1-integrins in T cells and hypothesized to play a role in the process of T cell costimulation, designating this gene Cas-L (Crk-associated substrate-related protein, Lymphocyte type). (wikipedia.org)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Concanavalin A (ConA) has the ability to stimulate the activation of T lymphocytes, mostly CD4 + T-cells, leading to immune hepatitis in mice [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • cells in diabetic mice, and that the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of this combination was better than that of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) or polysachharide alone. (jove.com)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic mice over-expressing the transcription factor Gli2 under the K5 promoter in cutaneous keratinocytes develop multiple skin tumours on the ears, tail, trunk and dorsal aspect of the paw, resembling those of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). (wikipedia.org)
  • insulin
  • Type 1 diabetes is caused by T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. (jove.com)
  • Lipids
  • ERβ also plays a role in regulating APOE, a risk factor for AD that redistributes lipids across cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • NEDD9-binding regions in the miR-145 locus would allow the direct binding of the NEDD9 3'UTR to the genomic region of miR-145, and some studies suggests this miR regulates NEDD9 in glioblastoma prostate cancer, and renal cell carcinoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • have shown that experimental over-expression of mir-145 down-regulates the junctional cell adhesion molecule JAM-A as well as the actin bundling protein fascin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • ab94065 is a 293T cell transfected lysate in which Human IKK beta has been transiently over-expressed using a pCMV-IKK beta plasmid. (abcam.com)
  • Some of the most common ones are: EVI_1a, EVI_1b, EVI_1c, EVI_1d, and EVI_3L are all variants in the 5' untranslated region, and all except EVI_1a are specific to human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rp9 variant is quite common in human and mouse cells, lacks 9 amino acids in the repression domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, because of its hydrophobic nature, ceramide readily flip-flops across membranes as supported by studies in membrane models and membranes from red blood cells (erythrocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • radial glia
  • Tanycytes in the median eminence of the hypothalamus are a type of ependymal cell that descend from radial glia and line the base of the third ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "radial glia" refers to the morphological characteristics of these cells that were first observed: namely, their radial processes and their similarity to astrocytes, another member of the glial cell family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the initial period of interest in radial glia, little addition information was learned about these cells until the electron microscope and immunohistochemistry became available some 60 years later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local environmental cues such as Notch and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, developmental period, and differing abilities of radial glia to respond to environmental cues have all been shown to influence the type of radial glia and radial glia-derived daughter cells that will be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Therefore, ConA-induced hepatitis is an ideal model to investigate the mechanisms and treatments of T-cell-dependent hepatotoxicity. (hindawi.com)
  • mutations
  • Mutations in ERβ have been shown to influence cardiomyocytes, the cells that comprise the largest part of the heart, and can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino
  • The 145kDa isoform is the most-studied, encoding 1051 amino acids, although there are many EVI1 fusion products detectable in cells expressing EVI1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autophagy
  • Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγος autóphagos, meaning "self-devouring" and κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequence
  • This leads to suggestions for how one might exploit the corollaries of the recognition that serum ferritin levels mainly represent a consequence of cell stress and damage. (rsc.org)
  • tissues
  • Cumulatively, the CASS4 transcripts are most highly expressed in spleen and lung among normal tissues, and are highly expressed in ovarian and leukemia cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for ABL1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its function in these cells may be regulated by phosphorylation of serine196, in its N-terminal DNA binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike Porter and Ashford, de Duve conceived the term as a part of lysosomal function while describing the role of glucagon as a major inducer of cell degradation in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • In cultured adult rabbit pacemaker cells infected with an adenovirus expressing the FRET sensor AKAR3, PKA activity and AP firing rate were tightly linked in response to either adrenergic receptor stimulation (by isoproterenol, ISO) or cholinergic stimulation (by carbachol, CCh). (frontiersin.org)
  • receptors
  • Glycine-induced activation of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may also result in hyper- or depolarising reactions of the prospective cells with regards to the intracellular Cl? (biomasswars.com)
  • replication
  • Mechanistic studies showed that the synergistic cell death was not due to an increase in viral replication but occurred through an enhancement of apoptotic cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses are designed to replicate and spread into the tumor, resulting in cancer cell lysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently the role of Tat, the transactivator protein of HIV-1, which plays critical and complex roles in both the HIV-1 replication cycle and the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection, is the object of research. (hindawi.com)
  • physiological
  • Thus, alterations in this signaling pathways due to ERβ mutation could lead to myocyte cell death from physiological stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • As a result, its levels in the cell are stabilized as it builds up in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysosomes could not be cell organelles, but part of cytoplasm such as mitochondria, and that hydrolytic enzymes were produced by microbodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • colon cancer
  • NEDD9 is induced by Wnt signaling in colon cancer, based on binding to T-cell factor (TCF) factors in the promoter region. (wikipedia.org)