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  • study
  • This repeated-measures, randomized study, conducted at 3600 m, tests the hypothesis that a P-mediated increase in V̇ e increases maximal oxygen consumption (V̇ O 2 max ) during the L phase relative to the F phase in Bolivian women, either born and raised at high altitude (HA), or resident at HA since early childhood. (biologists.org)
  • Using a repeated-measures design on a large study sample, our purpose was to determine whether ovarian cycle-phase affects maximal exercise performance (V̇ O 2 max ) in women who had lived at an altitude of 3600 m since birth or early childhood. (biologists.org)
  • membrane
  • Do the stain pass into the cells via diffusion through the cell membrane (e.g. in glutaraldehyde-fixed cells) or do the stain pass into the cells via specific uptake channels, or via pinocytosis (normal or induced), phagocytosis - or will it pass into live photoautotrophs like some green microalgae? (tebu-bio.com)
  • In fact the dye provided with the cell clock assay diffuses through the external membrane into live cells, so no active transport involved. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Translocation of membrane-associated phospholipid phosphatidylserines, changes in cell morphology, activation of caspases, and cleavage of PARP were concomitant with this inhibition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most fluorescent DNA dyes (one of exceptions is Hoechst 33342) are not plasma membrane permeant, that is, unable to pass through an intact cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, microfluorimetry is used in neurons to compare the effects of neurotoxins on both calcium ion concentration and mitochondrial membrane potential in individual cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radicals alter blood cell membrane properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Already in 1907 Lapicque was using a linear first-order approximation of the cell membrane, modeled using a single-RC equivalent circuit. (wikipedia.org)
  • P-glycoprotein 1 (permeability glycoprotein, abbreviated as P-gp or Pgp) also known as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) or ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) or cluster of differentiation 243 (CD243) is an important protein of the cell membrane that pumps many foreign substances out of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro and in vivo
  • In previous research, we found that MZ3 is a potent and specific compound against leukemia cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Co-treatment with CI radiation and CQ could block autophagy through the IRE1/JNK/Beclin-1 axis and enhance apoptotic cell death via the activation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) by the IRE1 pathway rather than PERK in vitro and in vivo. (cancerindex.org)
  • neuronal cell
  • It has been reported that large-diameter myelinated axons have chronaxie times ranging from 50 to 100 µs and 30 to 200 µs, and neuronal cell bodies and dendrites have chronaxie times ranging from 1 to 10 ms or even up to 30 ms. The chronaxie times of grey matter were reported as being 380 +/- 191 ms and 200±700 ms. Interpretations of chronaxie times are further confounded by additional factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • These tricyclic compounds and their diolefin precursors were evaluated for their antiproliferative action on the tumor cell lines HT-29, MCF-7, HeLa and A-549 and on the non-tumor cell line HEK-293. (rsc.org)
  • High linear energy transfer (LET) CI can induce both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy in tumor cells under certain circumstances. (cancerindex.org)
  • redox
  • In EM23-treated cells, the expression levels of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxinreductase (TrxR), two components of the Trx system involved in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis, were significantly down-regulated. (frontiersin.org)
  • induce
  • The oscillations of the cyclins, namely fluctuations in cyclin gene expression and destruction by the ubiquitin mediated proteasome pathway, induce oscillations in Cdk activity to drive the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Then in late S phase, the newly synthesized CcrM DNA methyltransferase brings the replicated chromosomes from the hemimethylated to the fully methylated state before cell division ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • In flow karotyping, isolated metaphase chromosomes are stained and measured in a flow microfluorometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescent staining of chromosomes can also give distribution about the relative frequency of occurrence and the chromosomal DNA content of the measured chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A microfluorometer can be used to estimate amounts and distributions of chemical components in individual cells or in chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to estimate the amount of chemical components, its fluorescent intensity is measured by photoelectrical photometry while distribution is found by measuring the intensities of photos of negative chromosomes' metaphase plates. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001) made a human transcriptome map of 12 different tissues (cancer cells) and concluded that genes are not randomly distributed across the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • The G 2 checkpoint control mechanism makes sure that the M phase and cell division is well prepared. (tebu-bio.com)
  • S-phase cell: An example of a cell about mid-way through the S phase. (tebu-bio.com)
  • G2-phase cell: During the G2 phase the cell becomes dark green in colour and will leave this phase as a blue cell. (tebu-bio.com)
  • M-phase cell: The cell has entered the final phase of the cycle. (tebu-bio.com)
  • A M-phase cell takeson a dumb-bell shape that will quickly transform into two spherical cells. (tebu-bio.com)
  • The proportion of cells in S phase after PHA stimulation was significantly higher than in controls overall and as early as on day three of the culture. (hindawi.com)
  • Activation with a recall antigen significantly induced increasing S phase cell proportions up to day six. (hindawi.com)
  • These data suggest that flow cytometric assessment of the S phase could be a useful alternative to isotopic methods measuring lymphocyte reactivity in vitro . (hindawi.com)
  • β-Galactosidase activity ( 16 ) was measured in mid-log phase wild-type cultures bearing the plasmids shown. (pnas.org)
  • During S phase, the stalked cell elongates and differentiates a new swarmer pole by activating a flagellar transcriptional cascade ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • It was hypothesized that this was mainly through downregulation of radiation-induced α v β 3 , in addition to induction of a higher proportion of cells within the G2/M phase. (dovepress.com)
  • As the DNA content doubles during the S phase, the DNA content (and thereby intensity of fluorescence) of cells in the G0 phase and G1 phase (before S), in the S phase, and in the G2 phase and M phase (after S) identifies the cell cycle phase position in the major phases (G0/G1 versus S versus G2/M phase) of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), the precursor whose detection offers certain advantages over BrdU, has now become the preferred methodology do detect DNA replicating (S-phase) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enables label-free Quantitative Phase Measurement (QPM), also called Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI), of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transparent objects, like living biological cells, are traditionally viewed in a phase contrast microscope or in a differential interference contrast microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • G0 is a resting phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle starts with this phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase, a cell has three options. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survivin expression is also highly regulated by the cell cycle and is only expressed in the G2-M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, they used SAGE data from three moments of the cell cycle (log phase, S phase-arrested and G2/M-phase arrested cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • One prominent hypothesis is the notion that mitral cells transform the strength of olfactory input into a timing code, where odor concentration is encoded in the phase of mitral cell firing relative to the sniff cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears that tufted cells receive strong olfactory nerve input, fire close to inhalation onset and their firing phase is relatively concentration insensitive, whereas mitral cells receive relatively weak olfactory nerve input and strong periglomerular inhibition, which delays their firing relative to the tufted cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This escape from inhibition can be sped up by increasing the stimulating odorant concentration, and thus mitral cell firing phase acts as one possible way the olfactory system encodes concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • The stages of the cell cycle can be discriminated using CyTOF® with 127IdU and metal-tagged antibodies to pRb, cyclin B1, and pH3. (fluidigm.com)
  • In an interview for "The Life Scientific" (aired on 13/12/2011) hosted by Jim Al-Khalili, R. Timothy Hunt explained that the name "cyclin" was originally named after his hobby cycling. (wikipedia.org)
  • R. Timothy Hunt: "By the way, the name cyclin, which I coined, was really a joke, it's because I liked cycling so much at the time, but they did come and go in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the cyclins are now classified according to their conserved cyclin box structure, and not all these cyclins alter in level through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • M cyclin concentrations rise as the cell begins to enter mitosis and the concentrations peak at metaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome 12 of Vero cells has a homozygous ~9-Mb deletion, causing the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was first developed as an experimental model in the 1950s: by Urs Leupold for studying genetics, and by Murdoch Mitchison for studying the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paul Nurse, a fission yeast researcher, successfully merged the independent schools of fission yeast genetics and cell cycle research. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • It provides information that can be interpreted into many underlying biological processes as explained in the section "Living Cells Imaging" here below. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to make dramatic change in system output is often essential to organism function, and bifurcations are therefore ubiquitous in biological networks such as the switches of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • F6B1.1) HeLa cells Immortalised cell line History and Characterization of the Vero Cell Line -- A Report prepared by CDR Rebecca Sheets, Ph.D., USPHS CBER/OVRR/DVRPA/VVB for the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee Meeting to be held on May 12, 2000 OPEN SESSION www.fda.gov pdf Yasumura Y, Kawakita M (1963). (wikipedia.org)
  • K562
  • Moreover, MZ3 can reduce the soluble tubulin in K562 cells and inhibit microtubule assembly. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these results provide important insights into the anticancer activities of the EM component EM23 against human CML K562 cells and AML HL-60 cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • genome
  • The whole genome sequence of a Vero cell line was determined by Japanese investigators in 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome analysis indicated that the Vero cell lineage is derived from a female Chlorocebus sabaeus. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic
  • The re-expression of CRABP1 in CRABP1 null cells brought back the induced apoptotic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus CRABP1 may be used as a therapeutic target along with trans-retinoic acid for apoptotic activity within cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiproliferative
  • The tricyclic compounds show antiproliferative activity similar to that of combretastatin A-4, even though they are not so active in arresting the cell cycle. (rsc.org)
  • quantitative
  • We quantified MALAT1 in MCL samples (40) and CD19+ B cells by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and correlated levels with clinical outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this field, it has shown unique applications for 3D characterization of technical samples and enables quantitative characterization of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a type of microphotometry that gives a quantitative measure of the qualitative nature of fluorescent measurement and therefore, allows for definitive results that would have been previously indiscernible to the naked eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrates
  • The cyclins also promote other activities to progress the cell cycle, such as centrosome duplication in vertebrates or spindle pole body in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • We found that the expression of MALAT1 was elevated in human MCL tumors and cell lines as compared to normal controls, and the elevated levels of MALAT1 correlated with higher MCL international prognostic index (MIPI) and reduced overall survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proteins
  • These phosphorylated proteins, in turn, are responsible for specific events during cycle division such as microtubule formation and chromatin remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survivin, like the others, was discovered by its structural homology to IAP family of proteins in human B-cell lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mice, each mitral cell sends a single primary dendrite into a glomerulus receiving input from a population of olfactory sensory neurons expressing identical olfactory receptor proteins, yet the odor responsiveness of the 20-40 mitral cells connected to a single glomerulus (called sister mitral cells) is not identical to the tuning curve of the input cells, and also differs between sister mitral cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Lymphocyte multiplication can be induced in vitro by mitogens or specific antigens, and is usually measured using isotopic methods involving tritiated thymidine. (hindawi.com)
  • morphology
  • The morphology of mitral cells was an advantage in early studies of synaptic processing, because the soma and the primary dendrite could be independently stimulated by appropriate positioning of stimulating electrodes in different layers of the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • We report here that ctrA expression is under the control of two promoters: a promoter (P1) that is active only in the early predivisional cell and a stronger promoter (P2) that is active in the late predivisional cell. (pnas.org)
  • fluorescence
  • The fluorescence intensity of the stained cells correlates with the amount of DNA they contain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is important because a doublet of two G0/G1 cells has the same total content of DNA and thus the same fluorescence intensity as a single G2/M cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A microfluorometer is a fluorescence spectrophotometer combined with a microscope, designed to measure fluorescence spectra of microscopic samples or areas or can be configured to measure the transmission and reflectance spectra of microscopic sample areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Once the gene that is disrupted in the bicoid mutant was identified, it was shown that bicoid mRNA is transcribed in the nurse cells and then relocalized to the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • But because the complete sequence of genomes became available it became possible to absolutely locate a gene and measure its distance to other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene regulation may also serve as a substrate for evolutionary change, since control of the timing, location, and amount of gene expression can have a profound effect on the functions (actions) of the gene in a cell or in a multicellular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Support for the second hypothesis comes primarily from research in zebrafish (where mitral and tufted cells cannot be distinguished). (wikipedia.org)
  • Increases
  • A second (not necessarily exclusive) hypothesis is the idea of decorrelation in the olfactory bulb network, where the olfactory bulb network acts as a dynamical system whose action over time increases some (abstract) measure of distance between representations of highly similar odorants. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called "fission yeast", is a species of yeast used in traditional brewing and as a model organism in molecular and cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the ascomycetous yeast genera, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces is unique because of the deposition of α-(1,3)-glucan or pseudonigeran in the cell wall in addition to the better known β-glucans and the virtual lack of chitin. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinguish
  • Microfluorimetry can also be used as a method to distinguish different microorganisms from one another by analyzing and comparing the DNA content of each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This same concept can also be applied to distinguish between cell types using a suitable fluorescent dye which varies depending on purpose and is a critical technique in modern cell biology and genomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • In addition, expression of lncRNAs (PEG10, LUNAR1 and HULC) is correlated with clinical poor prognosis in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNAs
  • Prior to (or during the staining step) the cells are often treated with RNase A to remove RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • DAPI
  • Before analysis, the cells are usually permeabilised and treated with a fluorescent dye that stains DNA quantitatively, such as propidium iodide (PI) or 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Archer posited that decrements in maternal metabolic control altered fetal pancreatic beta cell, adipocyte (fat cell) and myocyte (muscle cell) development thereby inducing an enduring competitive advantage of adipocytes in the acquisition and sequestering on nutrient energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Mitral cells are neurons that are part of the olfactory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitral cells receive excitatory input from olfactory sensory neurons and external tufted cells on their primary dendrites, whereas inhibitory input arises either from granule cells onto their lateral dendrites and soma or from periglomerular cells onto their dendritic tuft. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell often have multiple primary dendrites innervating different glomeruli and they are sometimes called simply projection neurons, to indicate that they are the main neural element which project outside the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitral cells receive input from at least four cell types: olfactory sensory neurons, periglomerular neurons, external tufted cells and granule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synapses made by external tufted cells and olfactory sensory neurons are excitatory, whereas those of granule cells and periglomerular neurons are inhibitory. (wikipedia.org)
  • phases
  • Following dye uptake and incubation a distinct colour change occurs within cells, with particular colour changes being associated with cells in the G0-G1, S, G2 and M Phases. (tebu-bio.com)
  • tumor cells
  • This study will also look at specific substances called biomarkers in your blood, and in the tumor tissue which are involved in the growth of tumor cells, and determine if the levels of these biomarkers are related to your response to treatment or development of side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The mathematical relations that we have formulated can quantitatively determine how ablation of an oncogene's protein activity can result in apoptosis and/or a decrease in proliferation within a population of tumor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • species
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species belonging to the largest genus, Sphecodes, exhibit especially aggressive parasitism, attacking and sometimes killing solitary or social nest host female(s) before ovipositing eggs into pollen-provisioned host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This flux of material is the product of biological and ecological processes typically within the surface euphotic zone, and is of interest to scientists studying the role of the biological pump in the carbon cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • This deterioration is due to the death of the muscle cells and muscle tissues and leads to ongoing muscle wasting and muscle weakness. (blogspot.com)
  • Pasireotide works by binding to a protein called somatostatin receptor, which is expressed in many tissues throughout the body including thyroid cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • proteins
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • secondary
  • Mitral cells also sport secondary dendrites, fibers which connect them laterally with one another via reciprocal synapses that link them to inhibitory local interneurons. (photonics.com)
  • plant
  • MAJOR CANCER BREAKTHROUGH: Scientists Find Plant That Kills 98% Of Cancer Cells In Just 16 Hours! (unews.top)
  • After mating, the female builds a nest with urn-shaped cells made with mud, feces, and plant resin, and provisions these with nectar and pollen before laying an egg in each. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant, Cell and Environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Because they are not regeneratable in humans, any major damage or loss of these hair cells leads to permanent hearing impairment and other hearing-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • periods
  • This can lead to fatigue and temporary hearing loss if the outer hair cells do not get the opportunity to recover through periods of silence. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • Over-expression of PPARδ also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARδ by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the resultant oxygen tension and diminished blood supply reaching the outer hair cells, their response to sound levels is lessened when exposed to loud sounds, rendering them less effective and putting more stress on the inner hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simplest form of Statnamic analysis used to obtain equivalent static pile response is known as the unloading point method (UPM) The UPM analysis method was conceived to be simple and based on measured results alone (Middendorp et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Cells with the same sensitivity report their signals to a single specialized spherical unit - literally a ball of synapses - in the mouse's olfactory bulb. (photonics.com)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows up to ten individual piles to be tested in a day or multiple cycles on a single pile at 15 minute intervals. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • A natural physiological reaction to these threshold shifts is vasoconstriction, which will reduce the amount of blood reaching the hair cells of the organ of Corti in the cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • Typically, traps operate over an extended period of time (weeks to months) and their collection mechanisms may consist of a series of sampling vessels that are cycled through to allow the trap to record the changes in sinking flux with time (for instance, across a seasonal cycle). (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • It works by preventing cancer cells from multiplying and it also makes them more likely to die from the treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • primary
  • The glomeruli each have about 15,000 axons feeding into them, and each, in turn, signals via primary dendrites to mitral cells. (photonics.com)
  • This stands to reason because sister cells, by definition, receive information via primary dendrites from the same glomerulus. (photonics.com)
  • activity
  • This is a bit like flying blind - you can record the electrical activity of any cells you happen to hit, but you had no way of controlling which cells you would be recording from. (photonics.com)
  • The scientists were also able to identify and monitor activity of "nonsister" mitral cells, ones whose firing activity is fundamentally dissimilar because of the comparatively wide contrast in the odors that their glomeruli report. (photonics.com)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • record
  • They were able to target and record electrical signals (action potentials) from mitral cells that they call "sister cells," whose responses on average are quite similar. (photonics.com)
  • forms
  • They bind to DnaA-ADP and DnaA-ATP with equal affinities and are bound by DnaA throughout most of the cell cycle and forms a scaffold on which rest of the orisome assembles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pedicel is built first and its anterior surface is what forms the back of the first brood cell, which is made of a thick layer of mud and has an average volume around 4.8mL. (wikipedia.org)
  • complete
  • In larger nests, once a layer of cells is complete, the surface is covered with mud to make a new floor for the next layer of cells to be built. (wikipedia.org)
  • leads
  • However, if a time-varying voltage is applied across the leads of the capacitor, the source experiences an ongoing current due to the charging and discharging cycles of the capacitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • We review data from studies of chronic myelogenous leukemia and K562 cells to illustrate these principles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • made
  • The nests contain a pedicel made out of mud, and a number of urn-shaped brood cells fused together. (wikipedia.org)
  • state
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • events
  • A further important element is the interpretation of the Biblical chronology, the elaborate system of life-spans, "generations," and other means by which the Bible measures the passage of events from the Creation (Genesis 1:1) to the Book of Daniel, the last biblical book in which it appears. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • The transformed states are the phenotypes that a cell can access which provide a hyperproliferative advantage over the cell's normal counterpart. (biomedcentral.com)
  • surface
  • maximizing rate of gas exchange CO2 & O2 move across cell membrane by diffusion rate of diffusion proportional to surface area Why moist membranes? (slideplayer.com)
  • moisture maintains cell membrane structure gases diffuse only dissolved in water small intestines large intestines capillaries mitochondria High surface area? (slideplayer.com)
  • similar
  • Cell structures have been observed to be similar across nests. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also adopted the term "battery", (denoting the increasing of power with a row of similar units as in a battery of cannon), subsequently applied to clusters of electrochemical cells. (wikipedia.org)