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  • Interactions
  • The explanation is multifactorial, determined by the complex interactions between the tumor and its microenvironment, the virus, and the host immune response. (mdpi.com)
  • Promising laboratory results have not been translated to improved clinical outcomes, and this appears to be determined by the complex interactions between the tumor and its microenvironment, the virus, and the host immunity. (mdpi.com)
  • CD55
  • Another two molecules of wide cellular distribution, DAF (CD55) and MCP (CD46), are expressed by lymphocytes to inactivate C3b- and C4b-containing C convertases deposited on their cell surface (reviewed in Ref. 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • oncolytic viruses
  • Targeted therapy of cancer using oncolytic viruses has generated much interest over the past few years in the light of the limited efficacy and side effects of standard cancer therapeutics for advanced disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Although encouraging results have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models, most oncolytic viruses have failed to impress in the clinical setting. (mdpi.com)
  • Antitumor virotherapy is a developing approach to treat cancer with oncolytic viruses, namely replicative viruses that exclusively or preferentially infect and kill tumor cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • Attenuated strains of Measles Virus (MV) are now being used as oncolytic viruses in clinical trials to treat several types of cancer. (omicsonline.org)
  • The efficacy of oncolytic viruses is mainly due to their capacity to infect and kill tumor cells, but it has also been demonstrated that their capacity to induce immunogenic cell death can activate an antitumor immune response. (omicsonline.org)
  • Antitumor virotherapy using replicative oncolytic viruses that exclusively or preferentially infect and kill tumor cells is a field that is growing rapidly, along with progress in molecular biological engineering [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Adenovirus H101 is now approved in China for the treatment of head and neck cancer, and several other oncolytic viruses, such as HSV, adenovirus, and reovirus have entered phase III clinical trials [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cancer cells are susceptible to oncolytic viruses, albeit variably. (asm.org)
  • A wide range of oncolytic viruses show promise for killing cancer cells, yet the efficacy of oncolytic killing is low. (asm.org)
  • Treatment with oncolytic viruses is an emerging therapeutic practice (reviewed in references 3 and 4 ). (asm.org)
  • tumor-associated
  • The agent-polymer-peptide complex may be delivered to target cells by, for example, a pre-targeting technique utilizing bispecific or multispecific antibodies or fragments, having at least one binding arm that recognizes the hapten and at least a second binding arm that binds specifically to a disease or pathogen associated antigen, such as a tumor associated antigen. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Immunity
  • To determine whether JNKs are involved in antiviral T cell immunity, and whether JNK1 and JNK2 bear biological differences, we investigated the immune responses of JNK1-deficient and JNK2-deficient mice to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). (jove.com)
  • For a disease as contagious as measles, a very high rate of immunization (about 95%) is required to provide successful herd immunity. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • cells
  • Whereas TCR gene-modified T cells recognize peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC), CAR recognize antigen in an MHC-independent fashion. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CD46 acts as a co-factor for complement factor I, a serine protease which protects autologous cells against complement-mediated injury by cleaving C3b and C4b deposited on host tissue. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Anderson BD, Nakamura T, Russell SJ, Peng K-W (2004) High CD46 receptor density determines preferential killing of tumor cells by oncolytic measles virus. (springer.com)
  • It has been known for many years that viruses have the ability to replicate in and lyse cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The ability of viruses to kill cancer cells has been recognized for more than a century [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These viruses are often derived from attenuated strains that either exhibit a natural tropism against tumor cells or that have been engineered to target tumor cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • This recognition leads to the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules that eliminate pathogens like viruses for the activation of antigen presenting cells and for the activation of specific adaptive response [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • IRE-1/XBP-1 promote cell survival and enhanced the levels of the adenoviral immediate early gene product E1A, virus spreading, and killing of cancer cells. (asm.org)
  • Class II MHC restricted, the CD4 antigen is a receptor for binding HIV-1, and the onset of AIDS is associated with marked depletion of CD4 cells in the blood. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • For example, retroviral vectors selectively transduce nonspecifically activated or antigen sensitized T cells as they proliferate. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Currently, most lentiviral vectors used for genetic modification of human cells are packaged or pseudotyped in an envelope protein derived from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that is able to bind to and facilitate entry into a broad array of human cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Its ability to recognize large panoply of viruses and virus-infected cells, and trigger the effector pathways, results in neutralization of viruses and killing of the infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • gene
  • Adenoviruses are well suited to development as a virotherapy agent due to excellent stability, unparalleled infectivity, efficient gene transfer, and biologic plasticity compared to other viruses ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CD8-LV mediated stable in vitro and in vivo reporter gene transfer as well as efficient transfer of genes encoding TCRs recognizing the melanoma antigen tyrosinase. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CHO-Anti-Human CD46 MAb stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an Anti-human CD46 MAb gene to allow expression of the MAb. (creativebiomart.net)
  • immune
  • and concurrently pathogens, including viruses, have developed a variety of ingenious strategies to interfere with the immune defense mechanisms and hence promote their persistence at the individual or population level. (springer.com)
  • Measles is an enormous problem in developing countries, where infections often occur in very young children with immature immune systems, many of whom are also malnourished, which further impairs their immune response to the virus. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • During the period of coexistence with their hosts, viruses have learned how to manipulate host immune control mechanism. (intechopen.com)
  • The present review will highlight the different complex mechanisms associated with the host immune evasion by the viruses with special reference to the Classical Swine Fever Virus. (intechopen.com)
  • There are certain cellular components which are manipulated by viruses to evade the innate immune response. (intechopen.com)
  • Being a major first line of immune defense, the complement system keeps a constant vigil against viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • pathogens
  • This ancient system, established about 1000 million years ago ( Nonaka and Kimura, 2006 ), has the ability to recognize and eliminate varied invading pathogens including viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • antiviral
  • Supportive measures, such as antipyretics and fluids, are used for treatment of measles, because no specific antiviral therapy is available. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The genome of Rabies virus, Borna disease virus and Ebola virus code for the P phosphoprotein and VP35 that can block the antiviral response induced by IFN [ 8 , 9 , 10 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • cell
  • In contrast, infected JNK1(-/-) mice showed a significantly lower virus-specific CD8(+) T cell expansion. (jove.com)
  • Viruses are considered as extremely successful predators as they can replicate and control the host cell synthesizing machinery. (intechopen.com)
  • The infected cell polypeptide 0 (ICP0) from Bovine herpes virus can interact with IRF3 and induce its proteasome-dependent degradation [ 12 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The virus is cell-associated. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • An internationally agreed system of naming differentiation antigens on cell surfaces. (rrnursingschool.biz)