• ###### displaystyle
• B M I = mass kg height m 2 = mass lb height in 2 × 703 {\displaystyle \mathrm {BMI} ={\frac {{\text{mass}}_{\text{kg}}}{{\text{height}}_{\text{m}}^{2}}}={\frac {{\text{mass}}_{\text{lb}}}{{\text{height}}_{\text{in}}^{2}}}\times 703} BMI provides a simple numeric measure of a person's thickness or thinness, allowing health professionals to discuss weight problems more objectively with their patients. (wikipedia.org)
• It can be calculated as: ρ A = m A {\displaystyle \rho _{A}={\frac {m}{A}}} or ρ A = ρ ⋅ l {\displaystyle \rho _{A}=\rho \cdot l} where, A special type of area density is called column (mass) density (also columnar mass density), denoted ρA or σ. (wikipedia.org)
• operatorname {d} z} where z {\displaystyle z} denotes the vertical coordinate (e.g., height or depth). (wikipedia.org)
• A closely related concept is that of ice or liquid water path, which specifies the volume per unit area or depth instead of mass per unit area, thus the two are related: P = σ ρ 0 {\displaystyle P={\frac {\sigma }{\rho _{0}}}} , Another closely related concept is optical depth. (wikipedia.org)
• In those less than a year old it is m = 1 2 a m + 4 {\displaystyle m={\tfrac {1}{2}}a_{m}+4} and for those 1-10 years old it is m = 2 a y + 10 {\displaystyle m=2a_{y}+10} where m is the number of kilograms the child weighs and am and ay respectively are the number of months or years old the child is. (wikipedia.org)
• Storage body fat consists of fat accumulation in adipose tissue, part of which protects internal organs in the chest and abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### metric
• The BMI may also be determined using a table or chart which displays BMI as a function of mass and height using contour lines or colours for different BMI categories, and which may use other units of measurement (converted to metric units for the calculation). (wikipedia.org)
• In 1793, Thomas Jefferson requested artifacts from France that could be used to adopt the metric system in the United States, and Joseph Dombey was sent from France with a standard kilogram. (wikipedia.org)
• Under the Mendenhall Order in 1893, metric standards, developed through international cooperation under the auspices of BIPM, were adopted as the fundamental standards for length and mass in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
• The General Conference on Weights and Measures is the governing body for the modern metric system and comprises the signing nations of the Treaty of the Metre. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### percentage of body fat
• Epidemiologically, the percentage of body fat in an individual varies according to sex and age. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### formulas
• Of the many formulas that have been used for estimating body weight, some include the APLS formula, the Leffler formula, and Theron formula. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### child's
• Newer systems, such as the PAWPER tape, make use of a simple two-step process to estimate weight: the length-based weight estimation is modified according to the child's body habitus to increase the accuracy of the final weight prediction. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### calipers
• A number of methods are available for determining body fat percentage, such as measurement with calipers or through the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis. (wikipedia.org)
• Skinfold calipers or "pinch test" The skin at several specific points on the body is pinched and the thickness of the resulting fold is measured. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### density
• The areal density (also known as area density, surface density, superficial density, or density thickness) of a two-dimensional object is calculated as the mass per unit area. (wikipedia.org)
• When studying bodies falling through air, area density is important because resistance depends on area, and gravitational force is dependent on mass. (wikipedia.org)
• Snow water equivalent is a quantity of type columnar mass density. (wikipedia.org)
• Irrespective of the location from which they are obtained, the fat cells in humans are composed almost entirely of pure triglycerides with an average density of about 0.9 kilograms per litre. (wikipedia.org)
• With a well engineered weighing system, body density can be determined with great accuracy by completely submerging a person in water and calculating the volume of the displaced water from the weight of the displaced water. (wikipedia.org)
• If there were no errors whatsoever in measuring body density, the uncertainty in fat estimation would be about ± 3.8% of the body weight, primarily because of normal variability in body constituents. (wikipedia.org)
• This weight is then compared with "dry weight" as recorded outside the water to determine overall body density. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### individuals
• Individuals are often asked about common physical attributes such as weight and height in lieu of actual measurements. (biomedcentral.com)
• The widely used body mass index (BMI) provides a measure that allows the comparison of the adiposity of individuals of different heights and weights. (wikipedia.org)
• for example, individuals with greater muscle mass or larger bones will have higher BMIs. (wikipedia.org)
• However, BMI does not account for the wide variation in body fat distribution, and may not correspond to the same degree of fatness or associated health risk in different individuals and populations. (wikipedia.org)
• This method can be reasonably accurate for many people, but it assumes particular fat distribution patterns over the body-which may not apply to all individuals, and does not account for fat deposits not directly under the skin. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### combinations
• But the person in question may only be 1.795 m tall, with a weight of 80.5 kilograms - or 1.805 m and 79.5 kilograms: all combinations of all possible intermediate values must be considered. (wikipedia.org)
• The term was based on the use of insurance data that demonstrated the relative mortality for males and females according to different height-weight combinations. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### percentages
• Different authorities have consequently developed different recommendations for ideal body fat percentages. (wikipedia.org)
• This graph from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the United States charts the average body fat percentages of Americans from samples from 1999-2004: In males, mean percentage body fat ranged from 22.9% at age 16-19 years to 30.9% at age 60-79 years. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### estimate
• As fat is less dense than muscle, careful application of this technique can provide a reasonably close estimate of fat content in the body. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### bodybuilders
• Bodybuilders may compete at essential body fat range, in fact certified personal trainers will suggest them to keep that extremely low level of body fat only for the contest time. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### reproductive
• Essential body fat is necessary to maintain life and reproductive functions. (wikipedia.org)
• A healthy body requires a minimum amount of fat for proper functioning of the hormonal, reproductive, and immune systems, as thermal insulation, as shock absorption for sensitive areas, and as energy for future use. (wikipedia.org)
• Secondary end points included change from baseline in body weight and adverse events. (nih.gov)
• ###### ratio
• The modern term "body mass index" (BMI) for the ratio of human body weight to squared height was coined in a paper published in the July 1972 edition of the Journal of Chronic Diseases by Ancel Keys and others. (wikipedia.org)
• Some athletes (e.g. gymnasts, basketball and soccer players) have a high muscle to fat ratio and may have a BMI that is misleadingly high relative to their body fat percentage. (wikipedia.org)
• It is defined by body mass index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist-hip ratio and total cardiovascular risk factors. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### impair
• But the accumulation of too much storage fat can impair movement, flexibility, and alter the appearance of the body. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### weight varies
• Body weight varies throughout the day, as the amount of water in the body is not constant. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### scales
• So, if all body dimensions double, and mass scales naturally with the cube of the height, then BMI doubles instead of remaining the same. (wikipedia.org)
• Practically though, body weight may be measured with clothes on, but without shoes or heavy accessories such as mobile phones and wallets and using manual or digital weighing scales. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### birth
• Consequently, the baby adapts by changing its body size and metabolism to prepare for harsh conditions of food shortages after birth. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### lungs
• Symptoms of this disorder occur because the heart has difficulty pumping blood from the body through the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
• A correction is made for the buoyancy of air in the lungs and other gases in the body spaces. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### metabolism
• researchers have since shown that the metabolism of certain drugs relates more to IBW than total body weight. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### measure
• Whole-body air displacement plethysmography (ADP) is a recognised and scientifically validated densitometric method to measure human body fat percentage. (wikipedia.org)
• Bioelectrical impedance analysis A small electric current is passed through the body to measure its electrical resistance. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### ideal body
• Ideal body weight, specifically the Devine formula, is used clinically for multiple reasons, most commonly in estimating renal function in drug dosing, and predicting pharmacokinetics in morbidly obese patients. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### volume
• An alternative method, body volume index (BVI), is being developed in an effort to better take into account different body shapes. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### health
• Even modest weight loss of 5%-10% of initial body weight can reduce the risk of these negative health consequences [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
• In 1991, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored a consensus panel whose recommendations have set the current[update] standard for consideration of surgical treatment, the body mass index (BMI). (wikipedia.org)
• Various theoretical approaches exist on the relationships between body fat percentage, health, athletic capacity, etc. (wikipedia.org)
• In those with a BMI under 35, intra-abdominal body fat is related to negative health outcomes independent of total body fat. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### extent
• 9 ] examined the effect of age on the extent to which the body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported anthropometric information compared with estimates calculated from measured values. (biomedcentral.com)
• ###### females
• In females, mean percentage body fat ranged from 32.0% at age 8-11 years to 42.4% at age 60-79 years. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### muscle mass
• This is the easiest and most common method, but by far the least accurate, as it only measures one quantity (weight) and often does not take into account many factors such as height, body type, and relative amount of muscle mass. (wikipedia.org)
• As fat and muscle conduct electricity differently, this method can provide a direct measurement of the body fat percentage, in relation to muscle mass. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### actual
• This results in taller people having a reported BMI that is uncharacteristically high, compared to their actual body fat levels. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### years
• Despite the improved simplicity of this process over the years, however, a number of factors can affect the results, including hydration and body temperature, so it still needs some care when taking the test to ensure that the results are accurate. (wikipedia.org)