• ###### proteins
• Proteins were fractionated by SDS-PAGE and subjected to in gel digestion. (biomedcentral.com)
• For this technique, proteins are run across an immobile gel with a pH gradient until they stop at the point where their net charge is neutral. (wikipedia.org)
• When a vessel (typically a tube or bottle) containing a mixture of proteins or other particulate matter, such as bacterial cells, is rotated at high speeds, the inertia of each particle yields a force in the direction of the particles velocity that is proportional to its mass. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### eluent
• The shape and size of the compound (eluent) determine how the compound interacts with the gel (stationary phase). (wikipedia.org)
• ###### compounds
• This pioneer interface for LC-MS had the same analysis capabilities of GC-MS and was limited to rather volatile analytes and non-polar compounds with low molecular mass (below 400 Da). (wikipedia.org)
• To determine approximate molecular weight, the elution volumes of compounds with their corresponding molecular weights are obtained and then a plot of "Kav" vs "log(Mw)" is made, where Kav = (Ve-Vo)/(Vt-Vo) and Mw is the molecular mass. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### molecular weight
• Polymers can be characterized by a variety of definitions for molecular weight including the number average molecular weight (Mn), the weight average molecular weight (Mw) (see molar mass distribution), the size average molecular weight (Mz), or the viscosity molecular weight (Mv). GPC allows for the determination of PDI as well as Mv and based on other data, the Mn, Mw, and Mz can be determined. (wikipedia.org)
• Its molecular weight is 25 kDa (from positions 19 - 239), which conforms to the molecular mass predicted from its cDNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
• IUPAC definition ĐM = Mw/Mn where Mw is the mass-average molar mass (or molecular weight) and Mn is the number-average molar mass (or molecular weight). (wikipedia.org)
• They are of a fairly low molecular weight (to allow easy vaporization), but are large enough (with a low enough vapor pressure) not to evaporate during sample preparation or while standing in the mass spectrometer. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### affinity
• To identify potential regulators of the mouse MOR gene, we performed affinity column chromatography using 5'-UTR-specific RNA oligonucleotides using neuroblastoma NS20Y cells. (nih.gov)
• Other desirable properties of the gel forming agent are the absence of ionizing groups and, in a given solvent, low affinity for the substances to be separated. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### Protein
• Electrospray produces more multiply-charged ions than MALDI, allowing for measurement of high mass protein and better fragmentation for identification, while MALDI is fast and less likely to be affected by contaminants, buffers and additives. (wikipedia.org)
• Whole-protein mass analysis is primarily conducted using either time-of-flight (TOF) MS, or Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR). (wikipedia.org)
• Mass analysis of proteolytic peptides is a popular method of protein characterization, as cheaper instrument designs can be used for characterization. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### particles
• Unlike the lower concentrations where the arrangement of clay particles was continually in flux, the particles above 1% concentration locked into a stable structure which is known as equilbrium gel. (wikipedia.org)
• Clay particles interact in an anisotropic way differing from the typical isotropic way of colloidal particles, which normally interact with all of their nearest neighbors when forming a gel. (wikipedia.org)
• This lets clay particles connect in a chain and allows the gel to form at a low density. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### peptide
• The most widely used instrument for peptide mass analysis are the MALDI-TOF instruments as they permit the acquisition of peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) at high pace (1 PMF can be analyzed in approx. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### stationary phase
• Gels are used as stationary phase for GPC. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### spectrometer
• This is achieved by ionizing the sample with inductively coupled plasma and then using a mass spectrometer to separate and quantify those ions. (wikipedia.org)
• Finally, the analyte molecules are ionized by being protonated or deprotonated in the hot plume of ablated gases, and can then be accelerated into whichever mass spectrometer is used to analyse them. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### molecules
• M n {\displaystyle M_{n}} is more sensitive to molecules of low molecular mass, while M w {\displaystyle M_{w}} is more sensitive to molecules of high molecular mass. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### High
• High-mass discrimination was more pronounced in CSD than in the standard method. (diva-portal.org)
• These two types of instrument are preferable here because of their wide mass range, and in the case of FT-ICR, its high mass accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
• Producing a relatively high power for a given weight, the battery could be incorporated into microscope devices if the gel could be made at a low enough density. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### technique
• Disadvantages are, for example, that only a limited number of bands can be accommodated because the time scale of the chromatogram is short, and, in general, there must be a 10% difference in molecular mass to have a good resolution The technique was invented by Grant Henry Lathe and Colin R Ruthven, working at Queen Charlotte's Hospital, London. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### substances
• Using the gel for coatings instead of other substances would be beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### synthetic
• Equilibrium gel is made from a synthetic clay. (wikipedia.org)
• The gel is created by suspending synthetic clay in water. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### properties
• Indeed EPSs produced by microorganisms from extreme habitats show biotechnological promise ranging from pharmaceutical industries, for their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, bone regeneration and cicatrizing capacity, to food-processing industries for their peculiar gelling and thickening properties. (mdpi.com)
• From this observed properties the name equilibrium gel was derived. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### analysis
• The coupling of chromatography with MS is a well developed chemical analysis strategy dating back from the 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### application
• One such application is batteries containing a gel electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### products
• Overall, the interface is a mechanically simple part of the LC-MS system that transfers the maximum amount of analyte, removes a significant portion of the mobile phase used in LC and preserves the chemical identity of the chromatography products (chemically inert). (wikipedia.org)
• ###### cells
• CHO and HEp-2 were highly sensitive, with massive cellular death after 1 h of treatment, followed by BHK-21, HeLa, Vero and J774 cells, while MA 104 was insensitive to the toxin. (scielo.br)
• ###### distribution
• A sample of objects that have an inconsistent size, shape and mass distribution is called non-uniform. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### sensitivity
• The sensitivity of the cell lines CHO, HeLa, HEp-2, Vero, BHK-21, MA 104 and J774 to the cytotoxin was determined by the cell viability assay using neutral red. (scielo.br)
• ###### main
• One of the main characteristics of Equilibrium gel as with soft matter is that it displays various mesocopic structures originating from a large number of internal degrees of freedoms of each molecule. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### mixtures
• In 1975, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) was described by O'Farrell and Klose with the ability to resolve complex protein mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### protein
• In this study, we used protein mass spectrometry to analyze protein alterations in LPS-treated primary microglia with the application of RGFP966. (hindawi.com)
• The "fingerprint" of each peptide's fragmentation mass spectrum is used to identify the protein from which they derive by searching against a sequence database with commercially available software (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### typically
• Tapioca balls are typically neutral in flavor and gel easily, and are therefore often used as a thickening agent in foods like pudding. (wikipedia.org)
• It is an example of a sol-gel process wherein a molecular precursor (typically tetraethylorthosilicate) is first reacted with water in an alcoholic solution, the resulting molecules then joining together to build larger structures. (wikipedia.org)
• ###### materials
• The Stöber process is a sol-gel approach to preparing monodisperse (uniform) spherical silica (SiO 2) materials that was developed by a team led by Werner Stöber and reported in 1968. (wikipedia.org)
• In many engineering domains dealing with mass transfer in porous materials, such as hydrogeology or heterogeneous catalysis, the tortuosity refers to the ratio of the diffusivity in the free space to the diffusivity in the porous medium (analogous to arc-chord ratio of path). (wikipedia.org)