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  • Chromosome
  • Cell scramble: Silencing fly genes akin to those on human chromosome 16 can disrupt eye development (bottom row). (mit.edu)
  • The absence of several interacting genes underlies the developmental problems seen in people missing a segment of chromosome 16, a new study in fruit flies suggests 1 . (mit.edu)
  • RefSeq
  • For example, the sequences in NCBI's RefSeq library are predominantly the longest identified transcript of each gene, but comparisons to expression data from TCGA and other sources show that the longest transcripts are often not the ones that are responsible for important phenotypes. (cancer.gov)
  • molecular
  • When it comes to neuropsychiatric or behavioral development, you have to really rethink the classical model of single gene, single phenotype," says lead investigator Santhosh Girirajan , associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Pennsylvania State University. (mit.edu)
  • This really is a great first step in trying to connect specific genes to having effects on development," says Jonathan Sebat , professor of psychiatry and cellular and molecular medicine at the University of California, San Diego, who was not involved in the work. (mit.edu)
  • Cancer has remarkable complexity at the molecular level, with multiple genes, proteins, pathways and regulatory interconnections being affected. (springer.com)
  • These cancer-associated genes were used to extract 'common cancer fingerprints' through these molecular attributes, and a Boolean logic was implemented in such a way that both the expression data and functional attributes could be rationally integrated, allowing for the generation of a guilt-by-association algorithm to identify novel cancer-associated genes. (springer.com)
  • Such studies have advanced cancer research by providing a global view of cancer biology as molecular circuitry rather than the dysregulation of a single gene or pathway. (springer.com)
  • Gene expression profiling has been widely used to investigate the molecular circuitry of cancer. (springer.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of a family of molecular scaffold proteins that link the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton and functions in the determination of cell shape, arrangement of transmembrane proteins, and organization of organelles. (genecards.org)
  • human
  • Bio-Rad collaborated with Biogazelle, leaders in real-time PCR research, to design and experimentally validate PCR primers for gene expression assays across the human and mouse transcriptomes. (bio-rad.com)
  • In some cases, a significant literature exists for transcript variants that are dramatically underexpressed in human tissues, suggesting that these are probably not the best model systems for studying those genes. (cancer.gov)
  • The interactions are not limited to genes within the 16p11.2 region: The researchers identified 18 fly genes that correspond to human genes involved in brain development and 32 associated with neurological conditions. (mit.edu)
  • We first classified all the genes in the human genome into cancer-associated and non-cancer-associated genes based on extensive literature mining. (springer.com)
  • Finally, taking a signaling-pathway approach, a map of a human cancer signaling network was built [ 6 ] by integrating cancer signaling pathways with cancer-associated, genetically and epigenetically altered genes. (springer.com)
  • The human neuregulin-2 (NRG2) gene: cloning, mapping and evaluation as a candidate for the autosomal recessive form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease linked to 5q. (nih.gov)
  • This gene has been implicated in numerous human cancers and may act as a metastasis suppressor gene. (genecards.org)
  • proteins
  • The RRR clone collections contain genes with and without stop codons so that fusion constructs can be made at either end of the proteins of interest. (cancer.gov)
  • This gene encodes a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding family of proteins and has been shown to modulate multiple signaling pathways, including the MAP kinase (MAPK), NF-kappa B, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) signaling pathways. (genecards.org)
  • genomic
  • The gene consists of 12 exons and the genomic structure is similar to that of neuregulin 1, another member of the neuregulin family of ligands. (nih.gov)
  • hypotheses
  • The study] generates a lot of hypotheses about which genes are important and in which combinations. (mit.edu)
  • Owing to the large number of candidate genes, several different hypotheses can be generated to explain the variation in the expression patterns for a given study. (springer.com)
  • interactions
  • You should start thinking about gene interactions and how those interactions are modulated. (mit.edu)
  • The work also highlights possible interactions between genes within the deletion. (mit.edu)
  • Finally, these candidate genes are interlaced with the known cancer-related genes in a network analysis aimed at identifying highly conserved gene interactions that impact cancer outcome. (springer.com)
  • Title: Interactions among genes in the ErbB-Neuregulin signalling network are associated with increased susceptibility to schizophrenia. (nih.gov)
  • glial
  • GO annotations related to this gene include glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor receptor activity . (genecards.org)
  • tumors
  • Although DUSP3 is expressed in both breast and ovarian tissues, mutation screening in breast cancer pedigrees and in sporadic tumors was negative, leading to the conclusion that this gene is not BRCA1. (genecards.org)
  • Amplification and/or overexpression of this gene has been reported in numerous cancers, including breast and ovarian tumors. (genecards.org)
  • mediate
  • The products of these genes mediate distinct biological processes by acting at different sites in tissues and eliciting different biological responses in cells. (nih.gov)
  • single-gene
  • The single-gene knockdowns produce a variety of effects: Nervous system deletions tend to lead to motor problems, for example. (mit.edu)
  • targets
  • Our work suggests rational prioritization for which disorders are likely to be most sensitive to lithium and identifies genes that are likely to be useful targets for therapy adjunct to lithium. (frontiersin.org)
  • pathway
  • Fortunately, around this time a discussion was started on this website to identify a consensus set of RAS pathway genes . (cancer.gov)
  • It is our goal as part of the next step of the RRR Program to acquire or generate ORF clones of all of the 181 genes in the RAS pathway in their most biologically relevant form. (cancer.gov)
  • distinct
  • There are three distinct calmodulin genes dispersed throughout the genome that encode the identical protein, but differ at the nucleotide level. (nih.gov)
  • It is related to, but distinct from, the beta-II spectrin gene which is also known as spectrin beta non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1). (genecards.org)
  • identifies
  • Moreover, the nature of identified genes, not previously associated with regionalisation of the brain, identifies novel potential mechanisms in that process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • attributes
  • We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach using colorectal cancer as a test case and identify several novel candidate genes that are classified according to their functional attributes. (springer.com)
  • novel
  • We argue that this is a holistic approach that faithfully mimics cancer characteristics, efficiently predicts novel cancer-associated genes and has universal applicability to the study and advancement of cancer research. (springer.com)
  • This gene encodes a novel member of the neuregulin family of growth and differentiation factors. (nih.gov)
  • homolog
  • Mice lacking the homolog gene displayed a male-to-female sex reversal phenotype, which suggested a role in testicular embryogenesis. (genecards.org)