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  • Enzyme
  • Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • genes
  • The expression of 20 wheat genes, similar in sequence to up-regulated dicot defense- and wound- response genes, was monitored during the first 5 days after Hessian fly larvae initiated feeding. (usda.gov)
  • Other genes (MAP kinase, WCI-5, WIR-1) responded similarly in both compatible and incompatible interactions. (usda.gov)
  • Genome-wide nested association mapping, using 1.6 million SNPs, identified multiple candidate genes related to plant defense, including receptor-like kinase genes similar to those involved in basal defense. (pnas.org)
  • Due to low resolution of previous QTL mapping studies, it has been difficult to use this information in breeding programs, to identify positional candidate genes or to make strong inferences on the linkage relationships among these and other QTL. (pnas.org)
  • proteins
  • Hyper-acetylation of the histone tails neutralizes the positive charge of these domains and is believed to weaken histone-DNA and nucleosome-nucleosome interactions, thereby destabilizing chromatin structure and increasing the accessibility of DNA to various DNA-binding proteins (4,5). (cellsignal.com)
  • c-Ret/dok fusion proteins, in which Y1062 of c-Ret is deleted and replaced by the sequences of dok-4 or dok-5, induce ligand-dependent axonal outgrowth of PC12 cells, whereas a c-Ret fusion containing dok-2 sequences does not elicit this response. (rupress.org)
  • signals
  • Evidence is provided that bFGF promotes two MAP kinase signals that are distinguished both by their kinetics of activation and their dependency on αvβ3 ligation. (rupress.org)
  • activate
  • Since both growth factor receptors and integrins activate MAP kinase in vitro, we examined the role of MAP kinase and the requirement for integrin ligation during angiogenesis in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • family
  • While ErbB2 lacks an identified ligand, ErbB2 kinase activity can be activated in the absence of a ligand when overexpressed and through heteromeric associations with other ErbB family members (2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Here we found that p62dok family members act as substrates for the c-Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. (rupress.org)
  • In addition to dok-1, dok-2, and dok-3, we identified two new family members, dok-4 and dok-5, that can directly associate with Y1062 of c-Ret. (rupress.org)
  • Dok-4 and dok-5 constitute a subgroup of dok family members that is coexpressed with c-Ret in various neuronal tissues. (rupress.org)
  • signal
  • Initiation of angiogenesis is characterized by a rapid induction of MAP kinase that is αvβ3 independent, which is followed by a late acting sustained signal lasting for at least 20 h that is dependent on αvβ3 ligation. (rupress.org)
  • association
  • To gain insights into the genetic architecture of quantitative resistance in maize, we evaluated a 5,000-inbred-line nested association mapping population for resistance to northern leaf blight, a maize disease of global economic importance. (pnas.org)
  • A large nested association mapping (NAM) population consisting of 25 recombinant inbred-line (RIL) populations has been developed in maize for dissection of complex traits ( 22 - 24 ). (pnas.org)