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  • MAPKK
  • Frye CA, Tang D and Innes RW (2001) Negative regulation of defense responses in plants by a conserved MAPKK kinase. (els.net)
  • mitogen-activat
  • We recently reported that MPK3 and MPK6, two pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases, play essential roles in the induction of camalexin, the major phytoalexin in Arabidopsis thaliana . (plantcell.org)
  • pathogens
  • in contrast, helminths induce the differentiation of Th2 cells, whose cytokines (principally IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) induce IgE and eosinophil-mediated destruction of the pathogens ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • regulates
  • Activation of ROBO receptors by SLIT2 regulates various biological processes, including promoting cellular senescence via WNT inhibition (2), suppressing migration by enhanced β-catenin/E-cadherin association, regulating actin polymerization (4, 5), and suppressing cell proliferation induced by SDF1 and MCP1 (6, 7). (cellsignal.com)
  • Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • proteins
  • The human ERK3 (~100 kD) and ERK4 (~70 kD) proteins have a similar structural organization and are 73% identical in their kinase domain. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • Upon ligand binding, heterodimers form between ErbB3 and other ErbB proteins, and ErbB3 is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by the activated ErbB kinase (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • These sites serve as consensus binding sites for signal transducing proteins, including Src family members, Grb2, and the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase, which mediate ErbB downstream signaling (3). (cellsignal.com)
  • Other ER resident proteins that possess thioredoxin homology domains, including ER stress protein 72 (ERp72), constitute the PDI family (3,4). (cellsignal.com)
  • The Oct-4 gene is highly active in stem cells and the promoter is bound by Oct-4, Sox2, and Nanog proteins. (cellsignal.com)
  • ChIP can be used to determine the specific order of recruitment of various proteins to a gene promoter or to 'measure' the relative amount of a particular histone modification across an entire gene locus (3,4). (cellsignal.com)
  • ErbB
  • While ErbB2 lacks an identified ligand, ErbB2 kinase activity can be activated in the absence of a ligand when overexpressed and through heteromeric associations with other ErbB family members (2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Background: HER3/ErbB3 is a member of the ErbB receptor protein tyrosine kinase family, but it lacks tyrosine kinase activity. (cellsignal.com)
  • Thus, investigators view inhibiting interaction between ErbB3 and ErbB tyrosine kinases as a novel strategy for anti-tumor therapy. (cellsignal.com)
  • peptide
  • Blocking Peptide to the diluted primary antibody in a molar ratio of 10:1 (peptide to antibody) and incubate the mixture at 4 degree C for overnight or at room temperature for 2 hours. (mybiosource.com)
  • Role
  • CALIPHO has fully annotated 300 of the best characterized protein kinases with respect to their normal function and their role in disease and pathogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Lipin 1 plays a role in lipid metabolism in various tissues and cell types including liver, muscle, adipose tissues, and neuronal cell lines (2-4). (cellsignal.com)
  • ERp72 contains three thioredoxin homology domains (3) and plays a role in the formation and isomerization of disulfide bonds (3,4). (cellsignal.com)
  • type
  • Although there is much knowledge about the cytokines produced early in the response, and the transcription factors that determine Th polarization in T cells ( 3 , 4 ), the early "decision-making mechanisms" which result in a given type of immune response are poorly understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • resistance
  • DPYD is expressed more highly in HCC than in normal liver, and this is thought to be one mechanism of 5-FU resistance (3,4). (cellsignal.com)
  • Escherichia
  • For example, LPS from Escherichia coli signals through Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 ( 13 ), while TLR-2 appears to have a broad spectrum of ligands, including peptidoglycan of Staphylococcus aureus ( 14 ), lipoproteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( 15 , 16 ), and Sacharomyces cerevisiae zymosan ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cyclin
  • A number of studies have described the ability of over-expressed cyclin A to accelerate the G1 to S transition causing DNA replication, and cyclin A antisense DNA can prevent DNA replication (2-4). (cellsignal.com)
  • cancer cells
  • Moreover, deregulated kinases are frequently found to be oncogenic and can be central for the survival and spread of cancer cells [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • tissues
  • Background: Testis-specific kinase 1 (TESK1) is a LIMK-related protein kinase originally identified to be expressed highly in testes and subsequently shown to be expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell types (1-4). (cellsignal.com)