Loading...
  • solid tumors
  • By contrast, analysis of solid tumors necessitates invasive procedures that might limit patient compliance. (wikipedia.org)
  • While angiogenesis can reduce this affect, the partial pressure of oxygen is below 5 mm Hg (venous blood has a partial pressure of oxygen at 40 mm Hg) in more than 50% of locally advanced solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lungs, liver, brain, and bones are the most common metastasis locations from solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used mainly in relation to hematological malignancies but the developments of more sensitive assays have stimulated investigations for its use in relation to solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastases
  • Combination chemotherapy using doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide or carboplatin has been shown to induce short-term responses in about half of the cats with metastatic or nonresectable local disease, and is recommended after complete excision of the tumor to prolong disease-free period of and to delay the development of metastases. (osu.edu)
  • In IL-1β knockout (KO) mice, local tumor or lung metastases of B16 melanoma cells were not observed compared with WT mice. (pnas.org)
  • CTCs thus constitute seeds for the subsequent growth of additional tumors (metastases) in vital distant organs, triggering a mechanism that is responsible for the vast majority of cancer-related deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various patterns of prevalence of genetic mutations in the genomes of primary breast tumour and its metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interplay between the tumor and its microenvironment was part of Stephen Paget's 1889 "seed and soil" theory, in which he postulated that metastases of a particular type of cancer ("the seed") often metastasizes to certain sites ("the soil") based on the similarity of the original and secondary tumor sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is considered useful in identifying microscopic metastases of breast carcinoma in lymph nodes, and in distinguishing Paget's disease from malignant melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • neoplasia
  • Multiple studies have documented that spaying female dogs when young greatly decreases their risk of developing mammary neoplasia when aged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with female dogs left intact, those spayed before puberty have 0.5% of the risk, those spayed after one estrous cycle have 8.0% of the risk, and dogs spayed after two estrous cycles have 26.0% of the risk of developing mammary neoplasia later in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, unspayed female dogs have a seven times greater risk of developing mammary neoplasia than do those that are spayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors for mammary neoplasia in female dogs include age, breed ( Table 1 ), and sexually intact status. (petmd.com)
  • Overall, unspayed bitches have a seven times greater risk of developing mammary neoplasia than do those that are spayed. (petmd.com)
  • The exact cause-and-effect relationship between intact status and development of mammary neoplasia in female dogs has not been identified. (petmd.com)
  • small tumors
  • These views allow maximum inflation of all parts of the lung so that even small tumors can be seen. (marvistavet.com)
  • Those results were made possible by exquisitely sensitive magnetic separation technology employing Ferrofluids (colloidal magnetic nanoparticles) and high gradient magnetic separators invented by Paul Liberti and motivated by theoretical calculations by Liberti and Leon Terstappen that indicated very small tumors shedding cells at less than 1.0% per day should result in detectable cells in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melanoma
  • These effects of host-derived IL-1α and IL-1β were not restricted to the melanoma model, but were also observed in DA/3 mammary and prostate cancer cell models. (pnas.org)
  • The discovery of melanoma-specific T cells in patients led to the strategy of adoptively transferring large numbers of in vitro-expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) which has proven that the immune system has the potential to control cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • breast cancer
  • For mammary tumors in humans, see breast cancer . (wikipedia.org)
  • An increasing amount of experimental evidence shows that microRNAs can have a causal role in breast cancer tumorigenesis as a novel class of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, depending on the targets they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This down regulation was also observed in breast cancer cell lines, including MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 compared to the non-malignant cell line MCF-10A. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another group found that high serum levels of IL-6 correlated with poor outcome in breast cancer tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeted expression of oncogenes in mouse mammary epithelial cells is a way of modeling human breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation or over expression of oncogenes can be kept under controlled expression in a very specific cellular context rather than throughout the organism.Another way to model human breast cancer is done through the targeted inhibition of a tumor suppressor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumor in the lung is then called metastatic breast cancer, not lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterogeneity
  • This explains the concept of tumour heterogeneity and the order of genetic events during tumor evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumor microenvironment contributes to tumour heterogeneity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In different tumor subtypes, cells within the tumor population exhibit functional heterogeneity and tumors are formed from cells with various proliferative and differentiation capacities. (wikipedia.org)
  • This functional heterogeneity among cancer cells has led to the creation of multiple propagation models to account for heterogeneity and differences in tumor-regenerative capacity: the cancer stem cell (CSC) and stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essentially this theory proposes that all cells have the ability to be tumorigenic making all tumor cells equipotent with the ability to self-renew or differentiate, leading to tumor heterogeneity while others can differentiate into non-CSCs The cell's potential can be influenced by unpredicted genetic or epigenetic factors, resulting in phenotypically diverse cells in both the tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells that compose the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study in 2014 argues the gap between these two controversial models can be bridged by providing an alternative explanation of tumor heterogeneity. (wikipedia.org)
  • But the existence of both biologically distinct non-CSC and CSC populations supports a more CSC model, proposing that both models may play a vital role in tumor heterogeneity. (wikipedia.org)
  • suppressor gene
  • However, in cancer cells, CpG islands preceding tumor suppressor gene promoters are often hypermethylated, while CpG methylation of oncogene promoter regions and parasitic repeat sequences is often decreased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor gene promoter regions can result in silencing of those genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • When mutation results in loss of heterozygosity at tumor suppressor gene sites, these genes may become inactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • necrosis factor
  • In addition to the in vivo findings, IL-1 contributed to the production of vascular endothelial cell growth factor and tumor necrosis factor in cocultures of peritoneal macrophages and tumor cells. (pnas.org)
  • Blau syndrome Chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular syndrome Familial cold urticaria (familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome) Familial Mediterranean fever Hyper-IgD syndrome Majeed syndrome Muckle-Wells syndrome TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (familial Hibernian fever, TRAPS, tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome) Chronic blistering cutaneous conditions have a prolonged course and present with vesicles and bullae. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial
  • For example, IL-1 expression at the site of tumor development enhances the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial and malignant cells and facilitates the invasion of malignant cells into the circulation and their dissemination to remote tissues ( 11 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although recombinant IL-1 stimulates the proliferation of endothelial cells, adhesion molecule expression and production of cytokines and small/inflammatory mediator molecules ( 1 , 18 , 19 ), endogenous IL-1 has not been characterized as major cytokine in mediating in vivo tumor angiogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • In particular, endothelial progenitor cells have been shown to have a strong influence on the growth of tumor blood-vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • vasculature
  • in the absence of access to an adequate vasculature, tumor cells become necrotic and/or apoptotic (reviewed in refs. (pnas.org)
  • The enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR effect) is the observation that the vasculature of tumors is often leaky and accumulates molecules in the blood stream to a greater extent than in normal tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenes
  • In different types of cancer, a variety of epigenetic mechanisms can be perturbed, such as silencing of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes by altered CpG island methylation patterns, histone modifications, and dysregulation of DNA binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • local tumor
  • In IL-1α KO mice, local tumor development and induction of an angiogenic response in Matrigel plugs was less pronounced than in WT mice, but significantly higher than in IL-1β KO mice. (pnas.org)
  • different tumor
  • Here, we describe that microenvironmental IL-1β and, to a lesser extent, IL-1α are required for in vivo angiogenesis and invasiveness of different tumor cells. (pnas.org)
  • differentiation
  • CSCs may generate tumors through the stem cell processes of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the role of KDM2 in eukaryotic developmental differentiation is still largely a mystery, both KDM2A and KDM2B have been shown to play roles in tumor growth and suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung
  • For example, one group found a positive correlation between persistently activated tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3), found in 50% of lung adenocarcinomas, and IL-6. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular matrix
  • The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which the tumor exists, including surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, lymphocytes, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM). (wikipedia.org)
  • To do so, malignant cells break away from the primary tumor and attach to and degrade proteins that make up the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), which separates the tumor from adjoining tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • histological
  • Furthermore, the clinical outcomes of tumors classified as DLBCLs is highly variable suggesting that there are multiple subtypes of DLBCL that cannot be distinguished based on these histological markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter hypermethylation
  • From a study on transcriptional regulation of the miR-200 and miR-205 loci in bladder tumors and bladder cell lines, the miR-200 and miR-205 loci were found specifically silenced and gain promoter hypermethylation and repressive chromatin marks in muscle invasive bladder tumors and undifferentiated bladder cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Micro-RNA-205 induced the expression of tumor suppressor genes IL-24 and IL-32 at both the messenger RNA and protein levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • miR-205 activated tumor suppressor genes by targeting specific sites in their promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific activation of tumor suppressor genes (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in colon tumors compared to adjacent normal-appearing colonic mucosa, there are about 600 to 800 heavily methylated CpG islands in promoters of genes in the tumors while these CpG islands are not methylated in the adjacent mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtypes
  • The identification of tumor subtypes is based on established classification schemes such as the International Classification of Diseases published by the World Health Organization which provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis
  • Thus, early diagnosis and treatment is vital in cats with mammary tumors. (osu.edu)
  • Virtually all tumors are more common in aged than in young animals, with average reported age at time of diagnosis of about 10 years. (petmd.com)
  • Cancer
  • Since most female dogs come into heat the first time before age one year and breeding an immature female dog is not recommended, this means one must generally choose between a litter of puppies or mammary cancer prevention. (marvistavet.com)
  • If your dog is unspayed, was known to have had puppies, or was spayed in adulthood, she fits into the high risk group for mammary cancer development. (marvistavet.com)
  • If there is cancer in the chest, therapy must be directed towards the whole dog rather than towards the localized tumor. (marvistavet.com)
  • In the context of cancer, gene expression profiling has been used to more accurately classify tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autocrine signaling plays critical roles in cancer activation and also in providing self-sustaining growth signals to tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern cancer research has demonstrated that CTCs derive from clones in the primary tumor, validating Ashworth's remarks. (wikipedia.org)
  • the obvious benefits of avoiding the surgery include avoiding the risk related to the innate tumor-genicity of cancer surgeries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Existing cancer treatments have mostly been developed based on animal models, where therapies able to promote tumor shrinkage were deemed effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • The efficacy of cancer treatments is, in the initial stages of testing, often measured by the ablation fraction of tumor mass (fractional kill). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer stem cell model, also known as the Hierarchical Model proposes that tumors are hierarchically organized (CSCs lying at the apex (Fig. 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastatic tumors are very common in the late stages of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • excision
  • Before surgical excision of the tumour, FNAC was performed using a 0.6 mm diameter needle attached to a 10 ml syringe held in a standard metal syringe holder. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • undergo
  • It is characterized by a molecular reprogramming of a cell to undergo uninhibited cell division, allowing the formation of a malignant mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • In the present studies, we have assessed the role of IL-1 as a regulator of tumor angiogenesis by using transplantable tumors in IL-1β and IL-1α knockout (KO) mice. (pnas.org)
  • In particular, in mice, whose life spans do not exceed two years, tumor relapse is difficult to study. (wikipedia.org)
  • primary
  • This chemotherapeutic drugs are given every 3 to 4 weeks for 4 to 6 cycles after complete removal of the primary tumor. (osu.edu)
  • Interestingly, Harvey-ras-1 gene maps to rat chromosome 1, and by Southern analysis we observed that 4 of 8 primary tumors and 6 of 9 ovary-independent tumors showed considerable loss of Harvey-ras-1 signal indicating probable allele loss. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This immune response did not however affect the primary tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • angiogenesis
  • Host-derived IL-1 seems to control tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness. (pnas.org)
  • We also assessed whether inhibition of IL-1 activity by IL-1Ra can function as an anti-tumor agent by inhibiting angiogenesis. (pnas.org)