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  • tumors
  • Clonal epithelial stem cell lines, obtained from normal rat mammary glands or benign mammary tumors, differentiate under appropriate conditions along a pathway to droplet-cell/doming cultures of primative alveolarlike cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Three murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV)-producing epithelial cell lines derived from murine mammary tumors were examined in order to identify the MuMTV-specific cell surface antigens and their distribution on the cell surface, to study the kinetics of the MuMTV envelope precursor processing, virus assembly, and release, and to characterize the soluble MuMTV antigens that are shed into culture medium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BCL9-2 overexpression in vivo delayed the mammary involution and induced alveolar hyperplasia.We found, that primary cell cultures of BCL9-2 breast tumors responded to tamoxifen treatment.Finally, we describe a novel mechanism, how BCL9-2 regulates ER transcription by interaction with Sp1 through the proximal ESR1 gene promoter. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, aged BCL9-2 transgenic mice developed ductal-like mammary tumors with high nuclear ER expression. (nih.gov)
  • Ablation of Akt1 or Akt2 significantly delayed tumor onset and tumor growth rate but did not significantly alter lung metastasis.Disruption of Akt1 or Akt2 did not affect cell morphology or the expression of luminal or basal cytokeratins in mammary tumors.Although loss of Akt1 or Akt2 significantly inhibited mammary tumor onset and growth rates the effects were less dramatic than anticipated. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, we have previously shown that mammary tumors induced by elevated expression of the IGF-IR are associated with hyperactivation of Akt. (nih.gov)
  • In this manuscript, the impact of disrupting Akt1 or Akt2 in mammary tumors induced by IGF-IR overexpression were examined to determine whether specific Akt isoforms regulate different aspects of mammary tumorigenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Akt1 and Akt2 levels were stably ablated in mammary tumors of MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice by crossing MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice with either Akt1(-/-) or Akt2(-/-) mice. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the absence of Akt1 or Akt2, mammary tumors that developed in the MTB-IGFIR mice maintained detectable levels of phosphorylated Akt. (nih.gov)
  • Disruption of Akt1 or Akt2 did not affect cell morphology or the expression of luminal or basal cytokeratins in mammary tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the complete loss of Akt1 or Akt2, the level of total phosphorylated Akt remained largely unaffected in the mammary tumors suggesting that loss of one Akt isoform is compensated by enhanced activation of the remaining Akt isoforms. (nih.gov)
  • Western blot for Akt1 and Akt2 in wild type (WT) mammary tissues from four different mice and mammary tumors from four different MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice. (nih.gov)
  • Previous characterization of the MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice showed that mammary tumors expressing high levels of IGF-IR also contained high levels of phosphorylated Akt . (nih.gov)
  • However, it was not determined which of the Akt isoforms were important in the MTB-IGFIR mammary tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, as an initial experiment, the levels of the three Akt isoforms were evaluated in normal, wild type (WT) mammary tissue and in mammary tumors of MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluation of Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3 revealed that Akt1 and Akt2 can be detected in both WT mammary tissue and mammary tumors (Figure 1) while Akt3 could not be detected in either WT mammary tissue or mammary tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Optimizing the time of Doxil injection to increase the drug retention in transplanted murine mammary tumors. (nih.gov)
  • In the current study, syngeneic murine 4T1 mammary tumors were established on the backs of female BALB/c mice and Doxil was administered at particular mouse estrous cycle stages. (nih.gov)
  • Estrogen and progesterone induce persistent increases in p53-dependent apoptosis and suppress mammary tumors in BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with estrogen and progesterone (E+P) mimics the protective effect of parity on mammary tumors in rodents and depends upon the activity of p53. (nih.gov)
  • The following experiments tested whether exogenous E+P primes p53 to be more responsive to DNA damage and whether these pathways confer resistance to mammary tumors in a mouse model of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • The appearance of spontaneous mammary tumors was delayed by parity in BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice. (nih.gov)
  • Play media A 1972 study compared neoplasms in "Sprague-Dawley" rats from six different commercial suppliers and found highly significant differences in the incidences of endocrine and mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • carcinoma
  • Diastereomeric diaqua[1,2-bis(4-fluorophenyl)ethylenediamine]platinum(II) sulfates and nitrates produce a strong inhibition of the hormone-dependent MXT-M 3.2 mammary carcinoma of the B6D2F1 mouse. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • In contrast to the R,R/S,S configurated diaqua[1,2-bis(4-fluorophenyl)ethylenediamine]platinum(II) salts the corresponding R,S configurated compounds are also markedly active on the hormone-independent MXT-Ovex mammary carcinoma of the B6D2F1 mouse. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • epithelium
  • Nuclear accumulation of p53 and apoptotic responses were increased similarly in the mammary epithelium from E+P-treated and parous mice compared with placebo and age-matched virgins. (nih.gov)
  • Donor mammary epithelium was obtained from the fourth mammary glands of 12- to 15-week-old BALB/c-Trp53+/- female mice that were treated as described above: they were treated neonatally with either E+P or placebo and were parous or AMVs. (nih.gov)
  • Glands
  • The different cell types probably develop from primative ductal structures called terminal end buds, which are present in the developing rat mammary glands, and these structures contain relatively undifferentiated cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, these myoepitheliallike cells in culture contain an abundance of a potential calcium-binding protein, p9Ka, which also occurs in myoepithelial cells of histological sections from mammary glands. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Trp53+/- mammary tissues from donors, described in panel (a), were transplanted into mammary fat pads of 3-week-old wild-type hosts and allowed to fill the glands. (nih.gov)
  • Mice
  • Recent ameliorations in maneuvering the mouse genome have provided the technology to induce mammary cancers in mice arising from genetic mutations that have been identified in human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant
  • Family members with thrombocytopenia 5 need to be regularly monitored with complete blood count and blood smear screenings to detect the early changes brought on by the malignant transformations of this disease into hematological neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • alveolar
  • The fully differentiated cells of the rat mammary parenchyma, the ductal epithelial, alveolar, and myoepithelial cells, are distinguished by their ultrastructure and by their accumulation of immunocytochemically detectable marker proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BCL9-2 overexpression in vivo delayed the mammary involution and induced alveolar hyperplasia. (nih.gov)
  • gland
  • BCL9-2 was upregulated during puberty and pregnancy in normal mammary epithelia, but downregulated in the involuted gland. (nih.gov)
  • Rats
  • The reproductive function of rats was studied at Institute for Experimental Biology at University of California, Berkeley by Herbert McLean Evans and Joseph A. Long. (wikipedia.org)
  • progesterone
  • Scanned signal intensity of the hybridized protein array spots from a cytokine microarray assay of conditioned medium from 4T1 mouse mammary cell cultures treated with progesterone for 24 hours. (nih.gov)
  • tissue
  • b) Radiation-induced apoptosis was determined in outgrowths of Trp53+/- mammary tissue transplanted into wild-type hosts. (nih.gov)
  • metastatic
  • The metastatic potential of sub populations within mouse mammary cells is now considered as relatively an early event and dissemination occurs at the same time of pre invasive or micro-invasive lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • similarly
  • Patients who developed these transformations have generally been treated similarly to patients who have the same hematological neoplasms but on a non-familial basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • CANCER
  • It also confirms the genetic heterogeneity between the primary neoplasm of breast cancer patients and their respective metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukemia
  • Several transforming viruses contain "Immunoreceptor Tyrosine Activation Motifs" (ITAMs) which lead to activation of Syk including Epstein Barr virus, bovine leukemia virus, and mouse mammary tumor virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • In MXT-M3.2 mouse mammary tumours with significant quantities of androgen receptors casodex was also effective in inhibiting tumour growth. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • However, the limited duration of action in prostatic tumours and the incomplete growth inhibition in mammary tumours suggest that it should be used only combination with other endocrine therapies. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Although loss of Akt1 or Akt2 significantly inhibited mammary tumor onset and growth rates the effects were less dramatic than anticipated. (nih.gov)
  • A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often form a mass or lump, but may be distributed diffusely. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • To overcome this difficulty, we developed a novel technique to experimentally generate immortalised human mammary CAF cell lines (exp-CAFs) from human mammary fibroblasts, using a coimplantation breast tumour xenograft model. (jove.com)
  • In order to generate exp-CAFs, parental human mammary fibroblasts, obtained from the reduction mammoplasty tissue, were first immortalised with hTERT, the catalytic subunit of the telomerase holoenzyme, and engineered to express GFP and a puromycin resistance gene. (jove.com)
  • After a period of incubation in vivo , the initially injected human mammary fibroblasts were extracted from the tumour xenografts on the basis of their puromycin resistance 11 . (jove.com)
  • We observed that the resident human mammary fibroblasts have differentiated, adopting a myofibroblastic phenotype and acquired tumour-promoting properties during the course of tumour progression. (jove.com)
  • malignant
  • Family members with thrombocytopenia 5 need to be regularly monitored with complete blood count and blood smear screenings to detect the early changes brought on by the malignant transformations of this disease into hematological neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer
  • Although HCC is the sixth most common neoplasm worldwide, its grave prognosis makes it the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality, responsible for approximately 600,000 deaths annually [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • study
  • This experimental study evaluated the release of fluoride and several minerals related to remineralization from a novel functional cement, apatite ionomer cement (AIC), and its anti-bacterial properties compared with glass ionomer cement (GIC) and surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer filler containing composite resin (giomer). (clinmedjournals.org)