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  • tumors
  • Spontaneously developed mammary tumors in MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice were treated intratumorally with naked AM9D, once a week for 4 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • Weekly intratumoral treatment of spontaneously developed mammary tumors in MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice was sufficient to significantly reduce the rate of tumor growth and final tumor load in a dose dependent and statistically significant manner (P (nih.gov)
  • Additional in vivo studies showed that intralesional treatment with compound 44 in BALB/c mice bearing +SA mammary tumors significantly decreased the levels of HIF-1α, and this effect was associated with a corresponding decrease in Akt/mTOR signaling and activation of downstream targets p70S6 kinase and eIF-4E1. (nih.gov)
  • These findings demonstrate that treatment with the δ-tocotrienol oxazine derivative, compound 44, significantly attenuates +SA mammary tumor cell compensatory responses to hypoxia and suggests that this compound may provide benefit in the treatment of rapidly growing solid breast tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Estrogen and progesterone induce persistent increases in p53-dependent apoptosis and suppress mammary tumors in BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with estrogen and progesterone (E+P) mimics the protective effect of parity on mammary tumors in rodents and depends upon the activity of p53. (nih.gov)
  • The following experiments tested whether exogenous E+P primes p53 to be more responsive to DNA damage and whether these pathways confer resistance to mammary tumors in a mouse model of Li-Fraumeni syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • The appearance of spontaneous mammary tumors was delayed by parity in BALB/c-Trp53+/- mice. (nih.gov)
  • There are many differences between mammary tumors in animals and breast cancer in humans, including tumor type, malignancy, and treatment options. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact causes for the development of canine mammary tumors are not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female dogs who are not spayed or who are spayed later than the first heat cycle are more likely to develop mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dogs have an overall reported incidence of mammary tumors of 3.4 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average age of dogs with mammary tumors is ten to eleven years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several hypotheses on the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of canine mammary tumors but a specific genetic mutation has not been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, about 50 percent of mammary tumors in dogs were found to be malignant, although taking into account tumor behavior, one study has estimated true malignancy in mammary tumors to be 21 to 22 percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant mammary tumors are divided into sarcomas, carcinosarcomas, inflammatory carcinomas (usually anaplastic carcinomas), and carcinomas (including adenocarcinomas), which are the most common. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular carcinogenesis of canine mammary tumors are not completely understand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, current data show that significant similarities and differences exist between canine and human mammary tumors at the molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, newer studies showed that certain gene expression patterns are associated with malignant behaviour of canine mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because 40 to 50 percent of dog mammary tumors have estrogen receptors, spaying is recommended by many veterinarians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media A 1972 study compared neoplasms in "Sprague-Dawley" rats from six different commercial suppliers and found highly significant differences in the incidences of endocrine and mammary tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glands
  • A, B) Carmine-alum-stained whole mounts of mammary glands from virgin (iparous) or 3-days (3d), 7-days (7d), or 14-days (14d) pregnant wild-type (WT, blue box) or Wip1-knockout (KO, green box) mice. (nih.gov)
  • C, D) Hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections of mammary glands from WT (blue box) or Wip1 KO (green box) virgin and pregnant mice, as indicated earlier. (nih.gov)
  • The Trp53+/- mammary tissues from donors, described in panel (a), were transplanted into mammary fat pads of 3-week-old wild-type hosts and allowed to fill the glands. (nih.gov)
  • Donor mammary epithelium was obtained from the fourth mammary glands of 12- to 15-week-old BALB/c-Trp53+/- female mice that were treated as described above: they were treated neonatally with either E+P or placebo and were parous or AMVs. (nih.gov)
  • The mammary glands in dogs and cats are associated with their nipples and extend from the underside of the chest to the groin on both sides of the midline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now over 200 generations from New York in 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally, and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent ameliorations in maneuvering the mouse genome have provided the technology to induce mammary cancers in mice arising from genetic mutations that have been identified in human cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cell
  • δ-Tocotrienol oxazine derivative antagonizes mammary tumor cell compensatory response to CoCl2-induced hypoxia. (nih.gov)
  • Studies were conducted to determine the role of δ-tocotrienol and a semisynthetic δ-tocotrienol oxazine derivative, compound 44, on +SA mammary tumor cell hypoxic response. (nih.gov)
  • After a 24 hr treatment exposure to 150 µM CoCl2, +SA mammary tumor cell synthesis of VEGF was significantly increased as compared to cells in the vehicle-treated control group (Figure 7). (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with 2 μM of the δ-tocotrienol oxazine derivative, compound 44, alone had little or no effect on +SA mammary tumor cell VEGF synthesis as compared to the vehicle-treated control group (Figure 7). (nih.gov)
  • Lung
  • They are also reported as having a "low mammary tumour incidence, but do develop other types of cancers in later life, most commonly reticular neoplasms, lung tumours, and renal tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • TUMORIGENESIS
  • This suggests a cell type-specific reliance on Wip1 for tumorigenesis, because alveolar progenitor cells are the likely target for transformation in the MMTV(mouse mammary tumor virus)-neu but not MMTV-wnt1 breast cancer model. (nih.gov)
  • BALB
  • In 1974, now 136 generations from the original breeding pair, these animals were returned to The Jackson Laboratory and were named BALB/cByJ. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Treatment with 150 µM CoCl2 induced a hypoxic response in +SA mammary tumor cells as evidenced by a large increase in HIF-1α levels, and combined treatment with compound 44 attenuated this response. (nih.gov)
  • ELISA quantification of VEGF protein levels in the culture media following +SA mammary tumor cells exposed to 150 µM CoCl2 alone and in combination with compound 44. (nih.gov)
  • The metastatic potential of sub populations within mouse mammary cells is now considered as relatively an early event and dissemination occurs at the same time of pre invasive or micro-invasive lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often form a mass or lump, but may be distributed diffusely. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • b) Radiation-induced apoptosis was determined in outgrowths of Trp53+/- mammary tissue transplanted into wild-type hosts. (nih.gov)
  • stimulation
  • In 1982, the stimulation of expression from the MMTV-LTR (Mouse mammary tumor virus-Long terminal repeat) was done by multiple rounds of pregnancy and lactation to evaluate the relevance of a cellular proto-oncogene, c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • It also confirms the genetic heterogeneity between the primary neoplasm of breast cancer patients and their respective metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female
  • It is a common finding in older female dogs and cats that are not spayed, but they are found in other animals as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple studies have documented that spaying female dogs when young greatly decreases their risk of developing mammary neoplasia when aged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with female dogs left intact, those spayed before puberty have 0.5% of the risk, those spayed after one estrous cycle have 8.0% of the risk, and dogs spayed after two estrous cycles have 26.0% of the risk of developing mammary neoplasia later in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, unspayed female dogs have a seven times greater risk of developing mammary neoplasia than do those that are spayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • glands
  • A, B) Carmine-alum-stained whole mounts of mammary glands from virgin (iparous) or 3-days (3d), 7-days (7d), or 14-days (14d) pregnant wild-type (WT, blue box) or Wip1-knockout (KO, green box) mice. (nih.gov)
  • C, D) Hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections of mammary glands from WT (blue box) or Wip1 KO (green box) virgin and pregnant mice, as indicated earlier. (nih.gov)
  • The goats were slaughtered at 9 months of age and mammary glands were removed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The mammary glands in dogs and cats are associated with their nipples and extend from the underside of the chest to the groin on both sides of the midline. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastatic
  • The metastatic potential of sub populations within mouse mammary cells is now considered as relatively an early event and dissemination occurs at the same time of pre invasive or micro-invasive lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • In mice, a small (5-10 mm) incision is made in the inguinal region of anesthetized animals, the lymph node is localized and immobilized with forceps, and a volume of 10-20 μl of the vaccine is injected under visual control. (jove.com)
  • While less commonly used for research than mice, rats have served as an important animal model for research in psychology and biomedical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now over 200 generations from New York in 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally, and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor type
  • Orthotopic tumor models are currently the best way to study the characteristics of a tumor type, with and without intervention, in the context of a live animal - particularly in sites with unique physiological and architectural qualities such as the brain. (jove.com)
  • Human
  • protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1D) have a delay in HER2/neu (human epidermal growth factor 2), but not Wnt1-induced mammary tumor formation. (nih.gov)
  • The vast majority of human and animal viruses do not cause cancer, probably because of longstanding co-evolution between the virus and its host. (wikipedia.org)
  • breast
  • This suggests a cell type-specific reliance on Wip1 for tumorigenesis, because alveolar progenitor cells are the likely target for transformation in the MMTV(mouse mammary tumor virus)-neu but not MMTV-wnt1 breast cancer model. (nih.gov)
  • Nonetheless, it is statistically rare for a young woman to experience virginal mammary hypertrophy that results in massive, oversized breasts, and recurrent breast hypertrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jackson Laboratory
  • C57BL/6JOlaHsd In 1974, from the Jackson Laboratory to Laboratory Animals Centre, Carshalton. (spotidoc.com)
  • By 1935 the animals were in the possession of Muller's student, George Davis Snell, who moved them to The Jackson Laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1974, now 136 generations from the original breeding pair, these animals were returned to The Jackson Laboratory and were named BALB/cByJ. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Relatively insensitive to the primary odorant isovaleric acid (contrast seven other strains) and may provide an animal model of specific anosmia (Wysocki et al, 1977). (spotidoc.com)
  • mouse
  • The founding animals of the strain were obtained by Halsey J. Bagg of Memorial Hospital, New York, from a mouse dealer in Ohio in 1913. (wikipedia.org)
  • female dogs
  • Risk factors for mammary neoplasia in female dogs include age, breed ( Table 1 ), and sexually intact status. (petmd.com)
  • It is a common finding in older female dogs and cats that are not spayed, but they are found in other animals as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, unspayed female dogs have a seven times greater risk of developing mammary neoplasia than do those that are spayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • life
  • A curated database of ageing and life history information in animals, including extensive longevity records. (ageing-map.org)
  • Compared with bitches left intact, those spayed before puberty have a 0.5% risk, those spayed after one estrous cycle have an 8.0% risk, and dogs spayed after two estrous cycles have a 26.0% risk of developing mammary neoplasia later in life. (petmd.com)
  • Multiple
  • Multiple studies have documented that spaying bitches when young greatly decreases their risk of developing mammary neoplasia when aged. (petmd.com)
  • Overall
  • Overall, unspayed bitches have a seven times greater risk of developing mammary neoplasia than do those that are spayed. (petmd.com)