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  • Prolactin
  • This process is suppressed by MMP-2 and induced by MMP-3 and may be related to changes in the response of the gland to progesterone (P) and prolactin (PRL). (nih.gov)
  • ducts
  • Unexpectedly, MMP-2 also represses precocious lateral branching during mid-puberty.In contrast, MMP-3 induces secondary and tertiary lateral branching of ducts during mid-puberty and early pregnancy.Thus, specific MMPs refine the mammary branching pattern by distinct mechanisms during mammary gland branching morphogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • During puberty, mouse mammary epithelial ducts invade the stromal mammary fat pad in a wave of branching morphogenesis to form a complex ductal tree. (nih.gov)
  • At ∼6-8 wk old, the mammary ducts branch laterally. (nih.gov)
  • apoptosis
  • The enlarged TEBs of the TIMP-1-deficient mammary glands may also be related to a reduction in apoptosis due to increased MMP-2 activity, leading to an overabundance of cells. (nih.gov)
  • branch
  • Using pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we find that mammary gland branching morphogenesis requires transient matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity for invasion and branch point selection. (nih.gov)
  • carcinogens
  • The researchers used the information to create a searchable online database called the Mammary Carcinogens Review Database , featuring detailed information on each carcinogen. (silentspring.org)
  • The overwhelming majority of chemicals identified as animal mammary carcinogens or hormone disrupting compounds have never been included in a study of breast cancer in women. (silentspring.org)
  • The institute partnered with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in a research project on "Chemicals and Breast Cancer: Building on National Initiatives for Chemical Safety Screening," which focused on the development of rapid in vitro screens for breast carcinogens in mammary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors in animals
  • In a landmark study published in 2007 in Environmental Factors in Breast Cancer , a supplement issue of Cancer, researchers at Silent Spring identified 216 chemicals that cause mammary tumors in animals. (silentspring.org)
  • Among the 216 chemicals identified as causing breast tumors in animals, 73 have been present in consumer products or as contaminants in food, 35 are air pollutants, and 25 have been associated with occupational exposures affecting more than 5,000 women a year. (silentspring.org)
  • Milk
  • For each round of pregnancy, the mammary gland undergoes sequential cycles of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and alveolar ducts form and grow, differentiate to produce milk and, after lactation, cease, revert and regress to the pre-pregnancy state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • see mammary gland mammary gland, organ of the female mammal that produces and secretes milk for the nourishment of the young. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The basic components of a mature mammary gland are the alveoli (hollow cavities, a few millimeters large) lined with milk-secreting cuboidal cells and surrounded by myoepithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the infant begins to suck, the oxytocin-mediated "let down reflex" ensues and the mother's milk is secreted - not sucked from the gland - into the baby's mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dairy products also yield popular animal fat and oil products such as cheese, butter, and milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal fats are commonly consumed as part of a western diet in their semi-solid form as either milk, butter, lard, schmaltz, and dripping or more commonly as filler in factory produced meat, pet food and fast-food products. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, milk is removed from the teat of a female animal for the purpose of human consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protruding teats and accompanying glands can be located anywhere along the two milk lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both have been domesticated, and have provided camel milk, meat, camel hair for textiles, and have served as riding mounts and carriage animals, in war and in peace. (wikipedia.org)
  • Milking is the act of removing milk from the mammary glands of cattle, water buffalo, goats, sheep and more rarely camels, horses and donkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • The milker may refer either to the animal that produces the milk or the person who milks said animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • pituitary gland
  • Moreover, breast development and size are normal (albeit delayed) in spite of GH/IGF-1 axis insufficiency, and in some the breasts may actually be large in relation to body size (which has been hypothesized to be due to increased secretion of prolactin caused by a drift phenomenon from somatomammotrophic cells in the pituitary gland with a high GH secretion). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Such chimeras are composed of mammary cancer cells and host cells, that do or do not express stromelysin 3. (ugent.be)
  • A new monoclonal antibody to a cell-surface antigen that distinguishes luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the rat mammary gland. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. (hindawi.com)
  • The ability of transgenic animals to produce complex, biologically active proteins in an efficient and economic manner is superior to those of bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and insects [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Differentiation of mammary stem cells in vivo and in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The fully differentiated cells of the rat mammary parenchyma, the ductal epithelial, alveolar, and myoepithelial cells, are distinguished by their ultrastructure and by their accumulation of immunocytochemically detectable marker proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The different cell types probably develop from primative ductal structures called terminal end buds, which are present in the developing rat mammary glands, and these structures contain relatively undifferentiated cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, these myoepitheliallike cells in culture contain an abundance of a potential calcium-binding protein, p9Ka, which also occurs in myoepithelial cells of histological sections from mammary glands. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mammary stem cells are bipotential and suggested to be the origin of breast cancer development, but are elusive and vaguely characterized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine a possible association between mammary stem cells and breast cancer, a detailed characterization of the transcriptome in mammary stem cells is essential. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequently, we have performed a cross-species comparison to reveal conserved gene expression between stem cells and subtype-specific and prognosis gene signatures, and correlated gene expression to in vivo mammary gland development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transcriptional characterization of these mammary stem-like cells and their differentiation-induced gene expression patterns is here made widely accessible and provides a basis for research on mammary stem-like cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We demonstrated the location of GLUT-8 in the mammary gland both in the epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Hormone-sensing cells require Wip1 for paracrine stimulation in normal and premalignant mammary epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, our findings highlight that hormone-sensing cells convert not only estrogen and progesterone but also prolactin signals into paracrine instructions for mammary gland development. (nih.gov)
  • Maintaining the correct polarized morphology of the lactiferous duct tree requires another essential component - mammary epithelial cells extracellular matrix (ECM) which, together with adipocytes, fibroblast, inflammatory cells, and others, constitute mammary stroma. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this stage, mammary gland development depends on systemic (and maternal) hormones, but is also under the (local) regulation of paracrine communication between neighboring epithelial and mesenchymal cells by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). (wikipedia.org)
  • This locally secreted factor gives rise to a series of outside-in and inside-out positive feedback between these two types of cells, so that mammary bud epithelial cells can proliferate and sprout down into the mesenchymal layer until they reach the fat pad to begin the first round of branching. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal studies show that exposure to persin leads to apoptosis in certain types of breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dairy products are animal secretions which contain varying levels of water, oils, fats and animal cells from circulatory and lymphatic systems such as blood and mammary glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • estrogen
  • Estrogen and growth hormone (GH) are essential for the ductal component of mammary gland development, and act synergistically to mediate it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In any case, unlike IGF-1, GH itself is not essential for mammary gland development, and IGF-1 in conjunction with estrogen can induce normal mammary gland development without the presence of GH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because 40 to 50 percent of dog mammary tumors have estrogen receptors, spaying is recommended by many veterinarians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organs
  • These effects occurred even in animals that had been ovariectomized and hypophysectomized, suggesting that amphenone B might be acting directly on the target organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • For example, in a study of aged female rhesus macaques, treatment with GH alone, IGF-1 alone, and the combination of GH and IGF-1, were found to produce mammary gland hyperplasia and increased mammary gland size and epithelial proliferation by 2-fold, 3- to 4-fold, and 4- to 5-fold, respectively, changes that were directly correlated with serum concentrations of GH and IGF-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic mammary morphogenesis is elicited by a combination of local cell migration, adhesion changes and proliferation, and these same developmental processes impact breast cancer etiology. (icr.ac.uk)
  • stem
  • We have used a murine mammary epithelial stem-like cell line (HC11) and made a thorough investigation of global gene-expression changes during stepwise differentiation using dual-color comparative microarray technique. (biomedcentral.com)
  • found
  • Conversely, the progesterone-like effects of amphenone B on the mammary glands were found to persist even in adrenalectomized and ovariectomized animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In consumer meat products in the U.S., animal remains are found to be classified as Animal fats when the particle size of bone solids is more than 3 percent, protein content is less than 14 percent and or the product contains over 30 percent pure fat content. (wikipedia.org)