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  • Recombinant
  • This process takes advantage of the fact that a single bacterial cell can be induced to take up and replicate a single recombinant DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • This single cell can then be expanded exponentially to generate a large amount of bacteria, each of which contain copies of the original recombinant molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The fundamental difference between the two methods is that molecular cloning involves replication of the DNA in a living microorganism, while PCR replicates DNA in an in vitro solution, free of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • The use of the word cloning refers to the fact that the method involves the replication of one molecule to produce a population of cells with identical DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assay
  • Prepared extracts are compatible with many downstream applications, including electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) with nuclear extracts, reporter assays with cytosolic extracts, western blots, enzyme assays and the Thermo Scientific Pierce BCA Protein Assay. (thermofisher.com)
  • The prepared protein fractions are suitable for downstream assays, such as two-dimentional gel, protein immunoblotting, gel-shift assay, enzyme activity assays, reporter assays, and more. (biovision.com)
  • A region within the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) E6 and E7 proteins which contained a T-cell epitope was identified using an IFN- g enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay performed with overlapping synthetic peptides ( Fig. 2 ). (jove.com)
  • These T-cell clones were screened using an IFN- γ ELISPOT assay in the presence of peptides covering the identified region and autologous Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs, obtained how described by Walls and Crawford) 2 in order to minimize the number of T-cell clone cells needed. (jove.com)
  • The IFN- γ ELISPOT assay was also performed using autologous LCLs infected with vaccinia virus expressing HPV 16 E6 or E7 protein. (jove.com)
  • Accurately measure endotoxin levels (LPS, lipopolysaccharides) in protein, peptide or antibody samples using our Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. (fishersci.com)
  • The cell lysates were clarified by centrifugation at 14,000 x g for 10 minutes and the supernatant was collected and the protein concentration (µg/million cells) was determined using the Pierce BCA Protein Assay (Part No. 23227). (thermofisher.com)
  • The concentration of a protein can be determined by measuring the OD at 280 nm on a spectrophotometer, which can be used with a standard curve assay to quantify the presence of Tryptophan, Tyrosine, and Phenylalanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomes
  • What they found was that when ribosomes are translating proteins that are targeted to a particular organelle, they hang around the surface of that organelle-way more frequently than was previously thought. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Briefly, cells are lysed and translating ribosomes are treated with nucleases that nibble away mRNAs, except for the 30 nucleotides or so that are protected within the ribosome. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Ribosomal profiling tells us where translating ribosomes are in relation to mRNAs, but not where they are in relation to the rest of the cell. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Next they tagged ribosomes by putting a biotin acceptor, called the AviTag, on ribosomal proteins such that the tag would be sticking out on the ribosomal outer surface. (yeastgenome.org)
  • In the 1950s, results of labeling experiments in rat liver showed that radioactive amino acids were found to be associated with "microsomes" (later redefined as ribosomes) very rapidly after administration, and before they became widely incorporated into cellular proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Biochemical and genetic studies in yeast demonstrated that TOR regulates these important cellular processes by two independent signaling branches defined by the TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2) protein complexes [ 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Cellular respiration - The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane to convert biochemical energy from fuel molecules into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release the cell's waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fate of misfolded proteins and the process leading to the formation of aggregate inclusions, were initially studied using biochemical methods (e.g. western blotting). (wikipedia.org)
  • situ
  • Here I present the successful adaptation of RNA whole mount in situ hybridization and histological techniques to study gene expression and cell histology in elasmobranchs. (jove.com)
  • reagents
  • These reagents provide high protein yield and enable consistent results due to our stringent controls over ingredient quality and formulation. (thermofisher.com)
  • Extract total protein from mammalian tissue or cell samples using mild but efficient lysis reagents. (thermofisher.com)
  • These reagents have been optimized and validated with specific tissue types, as well as in primary and cultured mammalian cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • These reagents offer higher protein yield than other commercially available or homemade formulations. (thermofisher.com)
  • Bovine serum albumin, or BSA, is commonly used in immunodiagnostic procedures, clinical chemistry reagents, cell culture media, protein chemistry research (including venom toxicity), and molecular biology laboratories (usually to leverage its non-specific protein binding properties). (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptic
  • In terms of humans, synaptic pruning has been observed through the inference of differences in the estimated numbers of glial cells and neurons between children and adults, which differs greatly in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of development, neurons which are in the process of loss via programmed cell death are unlikely to be re-used, but rather replaced by new neuronal structures or synaptic structures, and have been found to occur alongside the structural change in the sub-cortical gray matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synaptic vesicles are relatively simple because only a limited number of proteins fit into a sphere of 40 nm diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synaptic vesicles contain two classes of obligatory components: transport proteins involved in neurotransmitter uptake, and trafficking proteins that participate in synaptic vesicle exocytosis, endocytosis, and recycling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vesicular transporters move neurotransmitters from the cells' cytoplasm into the synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins do not share a characteristic that would make them identifiable as synaptic vesicle proteins, and little is known about how these proteins are specifically deposited into synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many but not all of the known synaptic vesicle proteins interact with non-vesicular proteins and are linked to specific functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whittaker coined the term synaptosome to describe these fractionation-derived particles and shortly thereafter synaptic vesicles could be isolated from lysed synaptosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Schematic of nuclear fractionation and example Western blot. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The preparation of good nuclear protein extracts is central to the success of many gene regulation studies. (thermofisher.com)
  • Nuclear extracts are used instead of whole cell lysates for several reasons. (thermofisher.com)
  • A variety of methods exist to isolate nuclei and prepare nuclear protein extracts. (thermofisher.com)
  • However, most of these are lengthy processes requiring mechanical homogenization, freeze/thaw cycles, extensive centrifugation or dialysis steps that may compromise the integrity of many fragile nuclear proteins. (thermofisher.com)
  • DNA-binding reactions were performed using 20 fmol biotin-labeled DNA duplex (1 Êbiotin per strand) and 2 µL (6.8 µg total protein) NE-PER nuclear extract prepared from HeLa cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • David L. Spector (born (1952-12-06)December 6, 1952, in New York City) is a cell and molecular biologist best recognized for his research on gene expression and nuclear dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • Purify GST-tagged recombinant fusion proteins from cell lysates using glutathione (GSH) beaded agarose affinity purification resins, spin columns and plates. (fishersci.com)
  • Bind biotinylated proteins and other ligands with a wide selection of high-quality agarose and acrylamide beads and columns of recombinant streptavidin biotin-binding protein. (fishersci.com)
  • This process takes advantage of the fact that a single bacterial cell can be induced to take up and replicate a single recombinant DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • This single cell can then be expanded exponentially to generate a large amount of bacteria, each of which contain copies of the original recombinant molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase III: complexes with DNA repair protein XRCC1 to aid in sealing DNA during the process of nucleotide excision repair and recombinant fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • purification
  • Most likely if ur protein is in inclusion body form, u will need to do purification under denaturing conditions with UREA then refold the protein. (protocol-online.org)
  • We offer protein expression and production services in baculovirus and mammalian host systems, as well as protein purification and analysis services. (thermofisher.com)
  • N-Hydroxysuccinimide ester resin and columns to covalently immobilize proteins, peptides and other amine-containing ligands for affinity purification. (fishersci.com)
  • Covalently immobilize cysteine-peptides or proteins (sulfhydryl-ligands) for affinity purification using iodoacetyl-activated agarose beads and columns. (fishersci.com)
  • apoptotic
  • E2 Proteins from High- and Low-risk Human Papillomavirus Types Differ in Their Ability to Bind P53 and Induce Apoptotic Cell Death Journal of Virology. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 16611918 The E2 proteins from oncogenic (high-risk) human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can induce apoptotic cell death in both HPV-transformed and non-HPV-transformed cells. (jove.com)
  • Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined, as well as some apoptotic proteins. (jove.com)
  • Calpains have been implicated in apoptotic cell death, and appear to be an essential component of necrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromatolysis is still used as a term to distinguish the particular apoptotic process in the neuronal cells, where Nissl substance disintegrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • These budding fragments were termed "apoptotic bodies," thus coining the name "apoptosis" to describe this form of cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Spector is a pioneer in unraveling our understanding of the inner workings of the cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic Methods in Microscopy, Live Cell Imaging: A Laboratory Manual), and a treatise of The Nucleus, that are used in laboratories throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The event of chromatolysis is also characterized by a prominent migration of the nucleus towards the periphery of the cell and an increase in the size of the nucleolus, nucleus, and cell body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral chromatolysis is essentially the reverse of central chromatolysis, in which the disintegration of Nissl bodies is initiated at the periphery of the neuron and extends inwards towards the nucleus of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral chromatolysis has been observed to occur in lithium-induced chromatolysis and it could be useful in investigating and countering the hypothesis that waves of enzymatic activity always progress from the perinuclear area, or the area situated around the nucleus, to the peripheral of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • We conclude that GM-CSF protects alveolar epithelial cells against oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial injury via the Akt pathway and its downstream components, including Mcl-1. (physiology.org)
  • In 2-D electrophoresis applications, protein fractionation by pI improves downstream sample loading and separation on narrow- and micro-range IPG strips. (bio-rad.com)
  • Sequence analysis of the relatively large Fzo/Mfn proteins (90-100 kDa) reveals a multidomain structure containing a GTP-binding and a transmembrane domain, as well as two predicted coiled-coil regions upstream and downstream of the transmembrane domain. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast to 2-DE, which requires MS for the downstream protein identification, MS technology can identify and quantify the changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • However, this method is not the most accurate because the composition of proteins can vary greatly and this method would not be able to quantify proteins that do not contain the aforementioned amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • A short N-terminus, as seen in A-III, can consist of 16 or less amino acids and travels along the concave protein core interacting via hydrogen bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • total protein
  • Mouse heart normal tissue lysate - total protein ( ab30291 ) can be used as a positive control in WB. (abcam.com)
  • Total protein (10 µg) from mouse brain tissue homogenates (H), cytosol (C) fraction, and synaptosome suspension (Syn) were analyzed by western blot. (thermofisher.com)
  • The total protein yield in the synaptosome suspension produced from fresh mouse brain (200 mg) was three-fold greater using the Syn-PER Reagent compared to a typical homebrew reagent. (thermofisher.com)
  • cytosol
  • However, in a few cell types, mRNAs with short poly(A) tails are stored for later activation by re-polyadenylation in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • study of proteins
  • The central role that microalgae play in global biomass production, together with the high biotechnological potential of these organisms in biofuel production, has drawn attention to the study of proteins that regulate cell growth such as the TOR kinase. (mdpi.com)
  • cytoplasm
  • Mitochondrial integrity is impaired, leading to release into the cytoplasm of cytochrome c and initiation of pathways to cell death ( 2 , 30 ). (physiology.org)
  • The consistent features of chromatolysis included the condensation of the cytoplasm and chromatin, cell shrinkage, formation of "chromatin balls," intact normal organelles, and fragmentation of cells observed by the budding of fragments enclosed in the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • For example, N-linked glycosylation has been reported to be critical for apical vs. basolateral targeting of various proteins in polarized epithelial cells (Scheiffele et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an endogenous growth factor found in the normal lung that is a product of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) ( 5 , 9 , 13 ). (physiology.org)
  • procedure
  • Subject 1 was a patient who was recently diagnosed with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion by biopsy and underwent loop electrical excision procedure for treatment on the day the T cells were collected 1 . (jove.com)
  • The procedure involves passing of a single stream of cells through a laser beam so that the scattered light from the cells can be detected and recorded. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretory
  • Immature proteins or proteins not designated to progress along the secretory pathway are retrieved to or retained in the ER, and misfolded proteins are extracted from the ER for degradation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Features by which proteins are recognized for quality control in the late secretory pathway are poorly understood, but a number of mechanisms are known to contribute to post-ER protein routing. (deepdyve.com)
  • Heparin is usually stored within the secretory granules of mast cells and released only into the vasculature at sites of tissue injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • Spector received a Bachelor of Science degree from City College of New York in 1973, a master's degree from Herbert H. Lehman College in 1977, and a Ph.D.in Cell Biology from Rutgers University in 1980. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2009-2012: Council Member, The American Society for Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology research extends to both the great diversities of single-celled organisms like bacteria and the complex specialized cells in multicellular organisms like humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology can be described as all of the following: Branch of science - A systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology - (formerly cytology) The study of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular differentiation - A concept in developmental biology whereby less specialized cells become a more specialized cell type in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • His initial research focused on experimental embryology, and soon his interest shifted to cell biology under the influence of Arthur Pollister. (wikipedia.org)
  • endosomes
  • Among them, rab7 has been localized on late endosomes of NRK cells but its function remains unknown. (biologists.org)
  • Here we show that, in HeLa cells, rab7 is present on a vesicular compartment that extends from the perinuclear area to the cell periphery and shows only a partial colocalization with the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, a marker for late endosomes. (biologists.org)