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  • yeast
  • The solved structures of yeast FAS and mammalian FAS show two distinct organization of highly conserved catalytic domains/enzymes in this multi-enzyme cellular machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast FAS has a highly efficient rigid barrel-like structure with 6 reaction chambers which synthesize fatty acids independently, while the mammalian FAS has an open flexible structure with only two reaction chambers. (wikipedia.org)
  • prosthetic group
  • The growing fatty acid chain is carried between these active sites while attached covalently to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), and is released by the action of a thioesterase (TE) upon reaching a carbon chain length of 16 (palmitic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • monomers
  • The above observations seemed incompatible with the classical 'head-to-tail' model for FAS organization, and an alternative model has been proposed, predicting that the KS and MAT domains of both monomers lie closer to the center of the FAS dimer, where they can access the ACP of either subunit (see figure on the top right). (wikipedia.org)
  • acyl
  • The growing fatty acid chain is carried between these active sites while attached covalently to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), and is released by the action of a thioesterase (TE) upon reaching a carbon chain length of 16 (palmitic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • PPT attaches the 4′-phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of CoA to the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain, which is found in the N terminus of the α subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • The IC50 for 8-BOA was relatively high when compared to that determined in other organisms, suggesting that LA biosynthesis can compensate for a decrease in LA salvage in medium deficient in LA. Second, attempts to replace either LIPA or LPLA genes with selectable markers were unsuccessful. (gla.ac.uk)
  • How defects in ribosomes, the essential organelles required for protein biosynthesis in all cells, cause tissue-specific abnormalities in human disease remains a question of fundamental scientific and medical importance. (bloodjournal.org)
  • intracellular
  • Overexpression of p49 changed the intracellular NAD/NADH ratio and reduced the amount of acetylated-SRF protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protein/lipid composition and biochemical properties of these membrane contact sites have been extensively studied particularly in relation to their role in regulating intracellular Ca 2+ 4,5,6 . (jove.com)
  • The ER serves as the primary store of intracellular Ca 2+ , and in this capacity regulates a myriad of cellular processes downstream of Ca 2+ signaling, including post-translational protein folding and protein maturation7. (jove.com)
  • chromosome
  • Laron syndrome is not a form of primary pituitary dwarfism (GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY DWARFISM) but the result of mutation of the human GHR gene on chromosome 5. (curehunter.com)
  • novel
  • The candidate genes provide a starting point for mechanistic studies of cellular processes that participate in the virus lifecycle and may provide targets for novel anti-viral therapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • molecules
  • The Amt/Rh protein mechanism might involve the single-file diffusion of NH3 molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Movement of large molecules such as proteins and RNA through the pores is required for both gene expression and the maintenance of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound sub compartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of sub-nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • RNAi with mca-1 produced a subtle body shortening phenotype, although genes encoding UBC-2 interacting proteins appear to be non-essential. (ubc.ca)
  • cells
  • Miami Winter Symposia, Volume 16: From Gene to Protein: Information Transfer in Normal and Abnormal Cells presents the expression and processing of genetic information at the levels of both proteins and nucleic acids. (elsevier.com)
  • The developing endosperm cells of seeds actively synthesize large amounts of storage proteins that acquire disulfide bonds in the ER. (hindawi.com)
  • Gene expression profiles relative to vehicle-treated cells were assessed by microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip 430 2.0 arrays. (springer.com)
  • When calcium ions (Ca2+) are depleted from the endoplasmic reticulum (a major store of Ca2+) of mammalian cells, the CRAC channel is activated to slowly replenish the level of calcium in the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that GLTP expression, both at the mRNA and protein levels, is elevated in cells that accumulate glucosylceramide. (jove.com)
  • Despite examples of mammalian genes that influence virus infection, the identification of such genes has been hampered by the lack of practical methods for genetic analysis in cultured cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we tested whether tagged sequence mutagenesis - a gene entrapment strategy widely used to mutate genes in mouse embryonic stem cells [ 5 - 10 ] could be used to identify candidate cellular genes required for lytic infection by reovirus, a small cytolytic RNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reovirus-resistant clones were selected at higher frequencies from entrapment libraries than from non-mutagenized cells, suggesting that reovirus-resistant phenotypes were induced by gene trap mutagenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we describe several fluorescent ligands for imaging the spatial distribution and localization of Ca 2+ channels in cells, as well as Premo Cameleon Calcium Sensor, a genetically encoded, protein-based ratiometric sensor for calcium measurements. (thermofisher.com)
  • Type I FAS exists in eukaryotes, including mammalian cells and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are found in gram negative bacteria, vertebrate cells, and invertebrate cells, and in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others have many. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike mammalian red blood cells, those of other vertebrates still contain nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian cells, the average diameter of the nucleus is approximately 6 micrometres (µm), which occupies about 10% of the total cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • A previous study on Non Obese Diabetic mice (NOD), which spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes, described histological and gene expression changes incurred by diabetes in the kidney. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As NOD spontaneously develops both diabetes and proteinuria, our previous studies could not distinguish gene expression changes due to diabetes versus proteinuria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To identify gene expression changes due to proteinuria alone, we investigate gene expression changes in two NOD-related mouse strains (NON and NOD.B10) that are diabetes resistant but can nevertheless develop proteinuria if subjected to protein overload by peritoneal injection of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our studies demonstrate a number of gene expression changes induced by protein overload. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two mouse strains were assayed for gene expression profile changes due to protein overload. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein Expression and Purification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of the mutant TRIM63 was associated with mislocalization of TRIM63 to sarcomere Z disks, impaired auto-ubiquitination, reduced ubiquitination and UPS-mediated degradation of myosin heavy chain 6, cardiac myosin binding protein C, calcineurin (PPP3CB), and p-MTOR in adult cardiac myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Induced expression of the mutant TRIM63 in the mouse heart was associated with cardiac hypertrophy, activation of the MTOR-S6K and calcineurin pathways, and expression of the hypertrophic markers, which were normalized on turning off expression of the mutant protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • Phenotypic changes and the lplA1 and lplA2 gene expression profiles of cloned LplA1-cKO parasites were analysed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Osteoblast differentiation requires the coordinated stepwise expression of multiple genes. (springer.com)
  • Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) accelerate the osteoblast differentiation process by blocking the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs), which alter gene expression by modifying chromatin structure. (springer.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that HDIs and HDAC3 shRNAs accelerate matrix mineralization and the expression of osteoblast maturation genes (e.g. alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin). (springer.com)
  • These data support the hypothesis that HDIs regulate the expression of genes that promote osteoblast differentiation and maturation. (springer.com)
  • The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression-the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Co-expression of the α2δ enhances the level of expression of the α1 subunit and causes an increase in current amplitude, faster activation and inactivation kinetics and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Previously, ribosomes had been largely relegated to the status of passive cellular drones in the ranks of the protein translational corps. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The characterization of cellular genes required for virus infection and/or cell killing will be essential for understanding viral life cycles, and may provide cellular targets for new antiviral therapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tagged sequence mutagenesis provides a rapid, genome-wide strategy to identify candidate cellular genes required for virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • proteasome
  • TRIM63 encoding Muscle RING Finger 1 (MuRF1) maintains muscle protein homeostasis by tagging the sarcomere proteins with ubiquitin for subsequent degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 In contrast, the potential contributions of the protein degradation pathways, including the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), in maintaining cardiac protein homeostasis and the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy are less well understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • Two genes (proteasome subunit, beta type 10 and adaptor-related protein complex AP-4 sigma 1) were suppressed. (springer.com)
  • A major route for protein degradation occurs via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (ubc.ca)
  • Proteins are targeted for destruction by the proteasome through covalent ubiquitin attachment. (ubc.ca)
  • lysosome
  • Autophagocytosis is a starvation-induced process responsible for transport of cytoplasmic proteins to the lysosome/vacuole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochem
  • The following publication are a selection: P. Merle and B. Kadenbach: The subunit composition of mammalian cytochrome c oxidase, Eur J Biochem 105, 499-507 (1980). (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification
  • Sequencing of TRIM63 gene in 302 HCM probands (250 white individuals) and 339 control subjects (262 white individuals) led to identification of 2 missense (p.A48V and p.I130M) and a deletion (p.Q247*) variants exclusively in the HCM probands. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our understanding of the organization of postsynaptic signaling systems at excitatory synapses has been aided by the identification of proteins in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction, a subcellular fraction enriched in structures with the morphology of PSDs. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we have completed the identification of most major proteins in the PSD fraction with the use of an analytical method based on mass spectrometry coupled with searching of the protein sequence databases. (jneurosci.org)
  • Candidate genes required for lytic reovirus infection were identified by tagged sequence mutagenesis, a process that permits rapid identification of genes disrupted by gene entrapment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • residues
  • PDI directly transfers a disulfide to two Cys residues of a substrate protein by means of a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction. (hindawi.com)
  • Its large size and numerous epitopes generate a substantial immune response, and abundance of lysine residues for coupling haptens allows a high hapten:carrier protein ratio, increasing the likelihood of generating hapten-specific antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the first organelle in the secretory pathway, and this dynamic and highly specialized organelle contains enzymes and chaperones that mediate the folding and assembly of newly synthesized proteins [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • bind
  • Therefore, it is possible that a protein complex formed around this domain or those proteins that bind to p49/STRAP may have a significant effect on SRF activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each domain of a KLH subunit contains two copper atoms that together bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like dihydropyridine, phenylalkylamines also bind to the α 1 -subunit of L-type Ca 2+ channels and block Ca 2+ transport. (thermofisher.com)
  • cytoskeleton
  • It was proposed[citation needed] that the erythrocyte Rh complex is a heterotrimer of RhAG, RhD, and RhCE subunits in which RhD and RhCE might play roles in anchoring the ammonia-conducting RhAG subunit to the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • superfamily
  • The OST family is a member of the larger group of secondary carriers, the APC superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the glycolipid transfer protein superfamily (GLTP) are found from animals and fungi to plants and red micro-alga. (jove.com)
  • degradation
  • This is achieved by phosphorylating the NEDD4L ubiquitin E3 ligase, promoting its interaction with 14-3-3 proteins, thereby preventing it from binding to SCNN1A /ENAC and targeting it for degradation. (rcsb.org)
  • A delicate balance between protein synthesis and degradation maintains cardiac size and function. (ahajournals.org)
  • The findings implicate impaired protein degradation in the pathogenesis of HCM. (ahajournals.org)
  • organisms
  • This book discusses as well the various problems of gene control in higher organisms, which are illustrated by the changes that occur in the hemoglobin of mammals. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, because KLH is derived from the limpet, a gastropod, it is phylogenetically distant from mammalian proteins, thus reducing false positives in immunologically-based research techniques in mammalian model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • FAS I in animals is thought to have arisen through modification of PKS I in fungi, whereas FAS I in fungi and the CMN group of bacteria seem to have arisen separately through the fusion of FAS II genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • We also identified eight growth factors and growth factor receptor genes that are significantly altered by each of the HDIs, including Frizzled related proteins 1 and 4, which modulate the Wnt signaling pathway. (springer.com)