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  • blastomeres
  • The fertilized egg first undergoes a series of early cleavage divisions, producing increasing numbers of progressively smaller cells, known as blastomeres, without changing the overall size of the embryo (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • blastocyst
  • With transplantation of early-stage nuclei, high proportions of development to the blastocyst and of offspring were obtained from nuclear transplant embryos with a nucleus from a 2-, 4- or 8-cell-stage embryos. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Expanding actin rings zipper the mouse embryo for blastocyst formation," Cell , 173:776-91.e17, 2018. (the-scientist.com)
  • If such sealing doesn't happen, pregnancy can fail, but "the precise mechanisms that give rise to embryo sealing prior to blastocyst formation remained incompletely understood," says cell biologist Maté Biro of the University of New South Wales. (the-scientist.com)
  • gastrulation
  • This new research provides fundamentally important information on how mammalian embryos develop during gastrulation, a key stage of development, and paves the way for new understanding of the earliest stages of life. (phys.org)
  • Gastrulation represents the process in animal (and human) development whereby precursor cells in the embryo become genetically programmed to generate all of the different organs in the body, including the brain, heart, lungs, gut and muscles. (phys.org)
  • Gastrulation is a critically important step in embryo development, however, detailed understanding of this process at the molecular level has, until now, been limited. (phys.org)
  • nuclei
  • One of the most salient findings from our results is that the donor cell-cycle stage critically affects the chromatin structure and development of nuclear transplant embryos when the nuclei from donor embryos were transferred to enucleated oocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • early
  • Denker, H.-W. Self-Organization of Stem Cell Colonies and of Early Mammalian Embryos: Recent Experiments Shed New Light on the Role of Autonomy vs. External Instructions in Basic Body Plan Development. (mdpi.com)
  • This book pulls together the full range of cell culture, biochemical, microscopic, and genetic techniques to study the early mammalian embryo. (oup.com)
  • Importantly, C. H. Waddington expanded the notion of the organizer to birds and mammals in experiments in which he transplanted a piece from the leading edge of the primitive streak of chicken, duck and rabbit embryos into early chicken embryos and observed a duplication of the anteroposterior axis of the host ( Waddington, 1932 , 1954 ). (biologists.org)
  • Not only does this reveal the 'birth' of cytoskeleton-bound cell-cell junctions in the early embryo, but also identifies cellular processes likely to be unique to these early stages of development which could cause infertility or early embryo loss if defective," Galea writes in an email to The Scientist . (the-scientist.com)
  • Studying the processes orchestrating the formation of early mammalian embryos is hampered by the difficulty in obtaining them. (cam.ac.uk)
  • blastocysts
  • In the second experiments, we found that nitric oxide, a free radical molecule acts as a regulator of development, especially transition of 2-cell embryos to the 4-cell stage and formation of blastocysts. (nii.ac.jp)
  • sequential
  • One example of this is the pattern of expression of Hox genes, an ensemble of genes that are expressed in a precise sequential order in the embryo and act as landmarks for different aspects of the body, including the position of different vertebrae or of limbs. (cam.ac.uk)
  • researchers
  • The researchers say that these pseudo-embryos will allow an alternative method to animal research, in accordance with the principle of the '3Rs' (the reduction, replacement and refinement of the use of animals in research). (cam.ac.uk)
  • normally
  • If this process does not happen, embryos may fail to develop normally. (the-scientist.com)
  • Analysis of the amnion of homozygous mutant embryos reveals the absence of the fold that normally tightly encloses the physiological hernia of the gut. (biologists.org)
  • structures
  • Gastruloids form structures similar to the posterior part of the embryo, from the base of the brain to the tail, whose development program is somewhat different from that of the head," says Dr Leonardo Beccari, co-first author of the study, from the University of Geneva. (cam.ac.uk)
  • mechanisms
  • The aim of my thesis was to determine the localization of transcripts and components of translational machinery in the mammalian oocyte and embryo and to uncover the mechanisms of spatiotemporal regulation of translation as a prerequisite for correct oocyte and embryo development. (cuni.cz)
  • represents
  • For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the Fetus . (jove.com)
  • Culture
  • Lowering oxygen tension and the addition of anti-oxidants, such as superoxide dismutase or thioredoxin, to the culture medium has been shown to exert a beneficial effect on in vitro development of embryos. (nii.ac.jp)
  • normal
  • Homozygous mutant embryos appear to have a normal skeleton, apart from reduced ossification of certain skull bones. (biologists.org)