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  • blastomeres
  • The fertilized egg first undergoes a series of early cleavage divisions, producing increasing numbers of progressively smaller cells, known as blastomeres, without changing the overall size of the embryo (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • gene
  • In vitro development of mammalian embryos during preimplantation period from the 1-cell to the blastocyst stages is known to be arrested at a stage characteristics for the species when zygotic gene activation (ZGA) occurs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thus, it is indicated that the development and gene expression of embryos during preimplantation stages, especially at periods of ZGA and blastocyst formation are regulated under redox controls. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Liu, D. Endogenous Retroviruses Function as Gene Expression Regulatory Elements During Mammalian Pre-implantation Embryo Development. (mdpi.com)
  • To investigate the role of Tal1 in blood development, we mixed embryonic stem cells carrying the mutated Tal1 gene with very early normal embryos to make chimaeras," explained Professor Jenny Nichols, group leader at the Wellcome-MRC Cambridge Stem Cell Institute. (phys.org)
  • The study shows that gastruloids organise themselves with regard to the three main body axes, as they do in embryos, and follow similar patterns of gene expression. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The complexity of gene expression profiles increases over time, with the appearance of markers from different embryonic cell lineages, much like the profiles observed in control embryos," adds Dr Naomi Moris from the Cambridge team, co-first author of the article. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The implementation of the Hox gene network over time, which mimics that of the embryo, particularly confirms the remarkably high level of self-organisation of gastruloids," explains Mehmet Girgin, co-first author of the study and PhD student at the Institute of Bioengineering at EPFL. (cam.ac.uk)
  • stem cells
  • This review discusses concepts concerning the involved mechanisms, focussing on autonomy of basic body plan development vs. dependence on external signals, as possibly provided by implantation in the uterus, and it addresses biological differences between an early mammalian embryo, e.g., a morula, and a cluster of pluripotent stem cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Now, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Geneva and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), they have extended the cultures to reveal a capacity of mouse stem cells to produce 'pseudo-embryos' that display some of the important characteristics of a normal mouse embryo. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The finding that so much of the development of an embryo can be recapitulated using stem cells will also increase researchers' ability to study the genetic mechanisms underlying normal development and disease. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Earlier in the year, the group led by Professor Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz at the Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience at the University of Cambridge reported embryo-like structures capable of generating an anteroposterior axis but which required additional, extra-embryonic, stem cells to generate anteroposterior polarity. (cam.ac.uk)
  • There are also methods for PCR-based cloning, differentiating embryonic stem cells into embryonic bodies, live imaging of mammalian embryos using multiphoton microscopy, and the cloning of pig, cattle, rabbit, and mouse oocytes. (springer.com)
  • Here we show that by modulating culture parameters, a stem-cell type with unique spatial characteristics and distinct molecular and functional features, designated as region-selective pluripotent stem cells (rsPSCs), can be efficiently obtained from mouse embryos and primate pluripotent stem cells, including humans. (nature.com)
  • Here we examine recent evidence suggesting that many drugs and diet supplements (DS), experimental AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonists as well as energy-depleting stress, lead to decreases in anabolism, growth or proliferation, and potency of cultured oocytes, embryos, and stem cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. (springer.com)
  • blastocysts
  • In the second experiments, we found that nitric oxide, a free radical molecule acts as a regulator of development, especially transition of 2-cell embryos to the 4-cell stage and formation of blastocysts. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Gastrulation
  • This new research provides fundamentally important information on how mammalian embryos develop during gastrulation, a key stage of development, and paves the way for new understanding of the earliest stages of life. (phys.org)
  • Gastrulation represents the process in animal (and human) development whereby precursor cells in the embryo become genetically programmed to generate all of the different organs in the body, including the brain, heart, lungs, gut and muscles. (phys.org)
  • Gastrulation is a critically important step in embryo development, however, detailed understanding of this process at the molecular level has, until now, been limited. (phys.org)
  • nuclei
  • One of the most salient findings from our results is that the donor cell-cycle stage critically affects the chromatin structure and development of nuclear transplant embryos when the nuclei from donor embryos were transferred to enucleated oocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • With transplantation of early-stage nuclei, high proportions of development to the blastocyst and of offspring were obtained from nuclear transplant embryos with a nucleus from a 2-, 4- or 8-cell-stage embryos. (nii.ac.jp)
  • early
  • This book pulls together the full range of cell culture, biochemical, microscopic, and genetic techniques to study the early mammalian embryo. (oup.com)
  • Denker, H.-W. Self-Organization of Stem Cell Colonies and of Early Mammalian Embryos: Recent Experiments Shed New Light on the Role of Autonomy vs. External Instructions in Basic Body Plan Development. (mdpi.com)
  • However, not much is known about mRNA localization and translation in the mammalian oocyte and early embryo. (cuni.cz)
  • Not only does this reveal the 'birth' of cytoskeleton-bound cell-cell junctions in the early embryo, but also identifies cellular processes likely to be unique to these early stages of development which could cause infertility or early embryo loss if defective," Galea writes in an email to The Scientist . (the-scientist.com)
  • Importantly, C. H. Waddington expanded the notion of the organizer to birds and mammals in experiments in which he transplanted a piece from the leading edge of the primitive streak of chicken, duck and rabbit embryos into early chicken embryos and observed a duplication of the anteroposterior axis of the host ( Waddington, 1932 , 1954 ). (biologists.org)
  • Studying the processes orchestrating the formation of early mammalian embryos is hampered by the difficulty in obtaining them. (cam.ac.uk)
  • glucose
  • Publications] H, Iwata: 'Effects of antioxidants on the development of bovine IVM/IVF embryos in various concentration of glucose. (nii.ac.jp)
  • As we discuss in more detail below, this may also lead to greater AMPK agonist toxicity observed in two-cell embryos that do not import glucose. (springer.com)
  • survival
  • Hum Reprod 24:2997-3009, 2009) may increase survival and health of cultured embryos during different stress exposure contexts (Puscheck et al. (springer.com)
  • epigenetic
  • During these windows of sensitivity suppression of anabolism, proliferation, and stemness/potency due to AMPK activity, or overexposure may stunt or kill embryos or cause deleterious epigenetic changes. (springer.com)
  • sequential
  • One example of this is the pattern of expression of Hox genes, an ensemble of genes that are expressed in a precise sequential order in the embryo and act as landmarks for different aspects of the body, including the position of different vertebrae or of limbs. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Culture
  • Lowering oxygen tension and the addition of anti-oxidants, such as superoxide dismutase or thioredoxin, to the culture medium has been shown to exert a beneficial effect on in vitro development of embryos. (nii.ac.jp)
  • researchers
  • The researchers say that these pseudo-embryos will allow an alternative method to animal research, in accordance with the principle of the '3Rs' (the reduction, replacement and refinement of the use of animals in research). (cam.ac.uk)
  • normally
  • If this process does not happen, embryos may fail to develop normally. (the-scientist.com)
  • Analysis of the amnion of homozygous mutant embryos reveals the absence of the fold that normally tightly encloses the physiological hernia of the gut. (biologists.org)
  • precise
  • If such sealing doesn't happen, pregnancy can fail, but "the precise mechanisms that give rise to embryo sealing prior to blastocyst formation remained incompletely understood," says cell biologist Maté Biro of the University of New South Wales. (the-scientist.com)
  • structures
  • Gastruloids form structures similar to the posterior part of the embryo, from the base of the brain to the tail, whose development program is somewhat different from that of the head," says Dr Leonardo Beccari, co-first author of the study, from the University of Geneva. (cam.ac.uk)
  • mechanisms
  • The aim of my thesis was to determine the localization of transcripts and components of translational machinery in the mammalian oocyte and embryo and to uncover the mechanisms of spatiotemporal regulation of translation as a prerequisite for correct oocyte and embryo development. (cuni.cz)
  • human
  • For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the Fetus . (jove.com)
  • Biro, Plachta, and their colleagues now plan to develop noninvasive imaging techniques to study the sealing of human embryos. (the-scientist.com)
  • Human embryo development is a complex process. (springer.com)
  • study
  • In general, the results of the study indicate that young mammalian embryos are responsive to a variety of contaminants that may be found in their environment. (epa.gov)