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  • Dolly
  • But the ability to transfer cell nuclei, which made possible the creation of Dolly the sheep last year, is probably more significant. (dhushara.com)
  • enough to plant an indelible vision of what might be, or even what could be.So it is easy to understand why the arrival earlier this year of Dolly, the sheep developed from an egg whose own genes had been replaced by those from an adult udder cell, was seen as the first incarnation of a sinister future. (ostatic.com)
  • Dolly was a clone of the sheep (her genetic mother) who provided the udder cell. (ostatic.com)
  • What was novel about Dolly was that she was the first unequivocal mammalian clone. (ostatic.com)
  • The term "stem cell research" was until recent years to be found only in obscure scientific and medical journals, but since the phenomenon of Dolly the sheep less than a decade ago most people have heard the phrase. (marxist.com)
  • By carefully controlling the fertilised cell and using the female sheep as a carrier of the fertilised cell, Wilmut created Dolly - an exact copy of the Dorset Finn sheep. (marxist.com)
  • The next major advance in this field came with the production of a normal adult sheep (Dolly) by transplanting the nuclei of cultured mammary gland cells derived from an adult sheep to enucleated sheep eggs ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Moreover, they say results of their studies provide compelling evidence that Dolly the sheep and other mammals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer were most likely derived from fully differentiated cells, not adult stem cells, as most have argued in the nine years since Dolly was first created. (medgadget.com)
  • With such odds, it's hard to believe that Dolly and other cloned animals could have possibly been derived from adult stem cells. (medgadget.com)
  • But scientists don't know much about what kind of udder cell helped to create Dolly. (seedmagazine.com)
  • As for the mystery surrounding Dolly, Ian Wilmut, the embryologist who supervised the sheep cloning project, said the new findings don't indicate whether the original udder cell was a stem cell or an already differentiated cell. (seedmagazine.com)
  • Shortly after the details of the procedure used to produce Dolly were published, scientists began to report one success story after another using the same procedure (or ones similar to it) to clone additional mammals from adult cells, including mice (Wakayama, et al. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Mammal
  • An adult mammal had been cloned! (apologeticspress.org)
  • The news was that a mammal had been cloned from an adult cell-something that even scientists like James Watson and Francis Crick (who were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their elucidation of the molecular structure of DNA) had gone on record as stating was very likely impossible. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Wilmut
  • Scottish embryologist Ian Wilmut and his colleagues had taken a mammary gland cell from a six-year-old Scottish Finn Dorset ewe and, via a process known as "nuclear transfer," succeeded in placing the genetic material from that cell into a hollowed-out egg cell from a Scottish Blackface sheep. (apologeticspress.org)
  • sperm
  • The egg cell is typically not capable of active movement, and it is much larger (visible to the naked eye) than the motile sperm cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon maturation, the neck opens to allow sperm cells to swim into the archegonium and fertilize the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, there has been increased attention to the possibility of a very different contribution of epigenetics: namely, that environmentally-induced epigenetic changes, in addition to occurring within the brain, might also occur in germ cells-sperm or egg-which are then passed onto the offspring and modify their responses to those same environmental exposures. (dana.org)
  • Cells from the sperm of a male are taken and injected into eggs extracted from the womb of a female. (marxist.com)
  • With the help of several genetic markers that are found in germ cells, the master cells that eventually give rise to the egg and sperm, the team shows evidence for the existence of germ cell progenitors, putative stem cells, in mouse bone marrow and blood. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These elementary facts about human cells, germ cells (egg and sperm), and early embryogenesis will provide the background for understanding the mechanism of cloning and the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction. (biology-online.org)
  • That zygote-which then contained the full complement of 54 chromosomes (as if it had been fertilized by a sperm cell)-was placed into the uterus of a second Scottish Blackface sheep that served as a surrogate mother. (apologeticspress.org)
  • epigenetic
  • In PNAS this week: study of epigenetic patterns in mammalian eggs, clonal expansion patterns in CD8+ T cells, and more. (genomeweb.com)
  • For example, the impact of a mother's diet on the fetus's life-long feeding behavior, or the effect of a mother's care for her young on the offspring's adult responses to stress, have been shown to be mediated through epigenetic modifications at specific genes within the offspring's brains that last a lifetime. (dana.org)
  • There is increasing evidence that epigenetic changes in neurons are responsible for many of the adult brain's maladaptations to the environment, such as to drugs of abuse to cause addiction or to stress to cause depression and related syndromes. (dana.org)
  • somatic cell
  • Subsequent procedures included mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, induction of pluripotency by ectopic gene expression, and direct reprogramming. (sciencemag.org)
  • Great news from investigators at the University of Connecticut and the University of Pittsburgh, who were able to produce clones from granulocytes (a type of blood cell that does not itself divide) and to show that differentiated cells are more efficient than stem cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. (medgadget.com)
  • Reproductive cloning is preformed using a technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). (sd43.bc.ca)
  • Flucelvax
  • The manufacturing process for the vaccine, called Flucelvax , is similar to the egg-based production method, but the virus strains included in the new vaccine are 'grown in animal cells of mammalian origin instead of in eggs,' the FDA says. (cnn.com)
  • Even though Flucelvax is the first cell-based flu vaccine approved in the United States, it's been around for five years already. (cnn.com)
  • According to FDA spokeswoman Rita Chappelle, the influenza virus reference strains that are adapted for use in manufacturing Flucelvax are obtained from the WHO Collaborating Center, which are grown in eggs. (cnn.com)
  • Therefore, she says, 'Flucelvax may not be described as completely egg-free. (cnn.com)
  • People with severe egg allergies can get the Flucelvax, produced in cultured mammalian cells, not eggs, or Flublok, made with recombinant DNA technology, which comes in both trivalent and quadrivalent. (dcourier.com)
  • Clones
  • Many have attributed cloning's limited success to a theory that clones must be derived from adult stem cells, which reside in a specific area of each tissue and remain quiescent until they are activated by the presence of disease or tissue injury. (medgadget.com)
  • According to Yang, more research is necessary to determine whether clones can be made from other kinds of differentiated cells besides blood cells. (seedmagazine.com)
  • organisms
  • When this happens, some organisms such as the single-cell alga Chlamydomonas are able to generate cellular energy from the breakdown of sugars. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • February 11, 2015 Dr. Douglas Koshland, University of California Berkeley, Department of Molecular & Cell Biology Remarkable organisms exemplify extremes in the spectrum of life, like transparent. (carnegiescience.edu)
  • The egg cell , or ovum (plural ova ), is the female reproductive cell ( gamete ) in oogamous organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • You might be surprised to learn that bone marrow transplant is stem cell replacement. (marxist.com)
  • Expression of a germ cell marker in bone marrow fluctuated regularly with the female mouse's estrous cycle, much like the cyclical rise and fall of certain hormones. (bio-medicine.org)
  • reproductive
  • Silver, a Princeton biologist, is an excellent guide to the properties of human germ cells, and to the many procedures which prospective parents may now adopt to tip the odds in the reproductive lottery in their offspring's favour. (dhushara.com)
  • 1242 words - 5 pages overall would be sought to donate eggs, which involves surgery with its own inherent risks.Some scholars of human reproductive cloning have argued that voluntary, informed consent would give people the option of making educated decisions about having themselves used in research. (ostatic.com)
  • genetic material
  • Australia will not be regulating gene editing of plants, animals, and human cell lines as long as no new genetic material is incorporated, reports Nature News . (genomeweb.com)
  • The genetic material from a donor egg is removed, so that you are left with an empty egg. (sd43.bc.ca)
  • scientists
  • Moreover, because scientists can create reprogrammed cells from adult tissue, the technologies come without the controversy that accompanies methods based on embryonic stem cells. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Scientists have already succeeded in producing human stem cell lines via parthenogenesis. (thehastingscenter.org)
  • The ongoing research into stem cell therapies as a treatment or possibly even a cure for diseases that have blighted us for all our existence and baffled doctors and scientists means that we find ourselves, as a society, in a period of unparalleled medical, scientific, social and moral challenges. (marxist.com)
  • tissue
  • This process instructs fully specialized adult cells how to turn into stem cells that can guide the formation of any tissue type. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Through these methods it becomes possible to derive one kind of specialized cell (such as a brain cell) from another, more accessible, tissue (such as skin) in the same individual. (sciencemag.org)
  • Much more likely is that these animals were derived from fully differentiated tissue cells," Dr. Yang argues. (medgadget.com)
  • Like most tissues, sheep udder tissue contains a huge number of mature, differentiated cells, along with a handful of adult stem cells. (seedmagazine.com)
  • However, differences between ES cells and primitive ectoderm cells have caused developmental biologists to question whether ES cells really have an in vivo equivalent, or whether their properties merely reflect their tissue culture environment. (biologists.org)
  • However, this term was never adopted, and the extent to which these pluripotent stem cell lines represent any specific embryonic cell type or reflect their artificial tissue culture environment is still an open issue today - two decades later. (biologists.org)
  • tissues
  • EC cells injected into mouse blastocysts can contribute to either the normal tissues of the resulting chimera ( Brinster, 1974 ) or, in some cases, to tumors ( Rossant and McBurney, 1982 ). (biologists.org)
  • phenotype
  • Cellular reprogramming" facilitates the generation of desired cellular phenotype through the cell fate transition by affecting the mitochondrial dynamics and metabolic reshuffle in the embryonic and somatic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • In agreement with this theory different studies have demonstrated that embryonic cues display the capacity of reprogramming aggressive cancer cells towards a less aggressive phenotype. (jove.com)
  • Herein we investigate the ability of a culture medium added with 10% egg albumen (EW, Egg White) to modulate seminoma cell phenotype and behaviour, by ensuring a proper set of morphogenetic signals. (jove.com)
  • Indeed, the malignant phenotype of EC cells often depends on the strain of the host mouse, and not on the tumor strain. (biologists.org)
  • animal
  • While the non-mammalian animal egg was obvious, the doctrine ex ovo omne vivum ("every living [animal comes from] an egg"), associated with William Harvey (1578-1657), was a rejection of spontaneous generation and preformationism as well as a bold assumption that mammals also reproduced via eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • If cells discarded genes when they embarked on the path from zygote to fully developed frog, these nuclei would lack genes necessary to build an animal. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • This is the first demonstration that an animal can be derived directly from a fully differentiated cell, report lead researchers Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang, Ph.D., of the University of Connecticut, and Tao Cheng, M.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, in the journal Nature Genetics. (medgadget.com)
  • PITTSBURGH, Oct. 1 - New research dismisses the notion that adult stem cells are necessary for successful animal cloning, proving instead that cells that have completely evolved to a specific type not only can be used for cloning purposes, but they may be a better and more efficient starting point. (eurekalert.org)
  • To the contrary, we found that cloned pups can be produced from adult, fully differentiated somatic cells, a conclusion that goes against popular opinion and current hypotheses," says Dr. Yang, animal science professor, director of the University of Connecticut's Center for Regenerative Biology and co-corresponding author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • For the last 10 years," said biologist Jerry Yang, leader of the new research effort, "no one could answer the question: Could the cloned animal be produced from one of those differentiated cells? (seedmagazine.com)
  • frog
  • Soon after this, similar experiments were carried out with eggs of the South African frog Xenopus laevis ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)