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  • genomes
  • To replicate their genomes in cells and generate new progeny, viruses typically require factors provided by the cells that they have infected. (springer.com)
  • repair
  • The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • It was first developed as an experimental model in the 1950s: by Urs Leupold for studying genetics, and by Murdoch Mitchison for studying the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Loss or inactivation of ATM leads to A-T, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neuronal degeneration, particularly the loss of cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells, immunodeficiency, genomic instability, radiosensitivity, and cancer predisposition. (jneurosci.org)
  • These include: 1) spontaneous inactivation to a lactone form in blood, 2) rapid reversal of the trapped cleavable complex after drug removal, requiring prolonged infusions, 3) resistance of cancer cells overexpressing membrane transporters, and 4) dose-limiting side effects of diarrhea and neutropenia. (wikipedia.org)