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  • embryos
  • A preparation and a method of making composite blastocysts (CBs) from aggregates of dissociated cells of non-viable pre-embryos are disclosed. (google.es)
  • Another advantageous embodiment is that the AP allows individual cells from non-viable pre-embryos to further multiply, and become integrated into CBs. (google.es)
  • 1 . A preparation of composite blastocysts (CBs) comprising cells derived from non-viable pre-embryos. (google.es)
  • 4 . The preparation of CBs of claim 1 comprising cells derived from non-viable primate pre-embryos. (google.es)
  • Specifically, the field of the present invention is composite blastocysts formed following dissociation, selection, and aggregation of cells derived from discarded pre-embryos. (google.es)
  • Nevertheless, starting with a collection of mammary cell nuclei and host egg cytoplasms derived from Scottish Blackface ewes, a number of fused couplets successfully formed embryos . (britannica.com)
  • Dr. Campbell joined the Roslin Institute in 1991 where he applied his previous experience to the production of mammalian embryos by nuclear transfer. (usda.gov)
  • Scientists have applied somatic cell nuclear transfer to clone human and mammalian embryos as a means to produce stem cells for laboratory and medical use. (asu.edu)
  • Gardner pioneered the transplantation of cells and tissues between blastocyst stage mouse embryos and their reconstruction from their component tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • His main research interests include investigating the fate and deployment of cells in early mammalian development with particular emphasis on clonal analysis, establishing the origin and efficient derivation of stem cells from early embryos, and determining the extent to which pre-patterning normally directs early development in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The attempt to clone argali (mountain sheep) did not produce viable embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reprogramming process that cells need to go through during cloning is not perfect and embryos produced by nuclear transfer often show abnormal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear transfer
  • Nuclear transplantation, as it was first called, was later referred to as somatic nuclear transfer or cloning. (asu.edu)
  • HMC is a radical technical modification of Somatic cell nuclear transfer of the original mammalian nuclear transfer technology established by Willadsen and applied for somatic cells by Wilmut and Campbell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technology promises a new possibility for automation of the somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gábor Vajta publications indexed by Google Scholar "Website of Reproductive Biomedicine Online (journal)" "Website of Cryobiology (journal)" "Website of Reproduction, Nutrition, Development (journal)" "Website of Theriogenology (journal)" "Website of Animal Reproduction Science (journal)" "Website of Cellular Reprogramming (journal)" "Cell Nuclear Transfer" patent no. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was created using the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer, where the cell nucleus from an adult cell is transferred into an unfertilized oocyte (developing egg cell) that has had its cell nucleus removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to achieve this they decided to try to transfer the nucleus from one cell to another and stimulate this new cell to grow and become an animal, a process known as nuclear transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • To optimize the chances of successful nuclear transfer, they put the cultured cells into a state of quiescence, which was a similar state to that of the unfertilized egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear transfer was done, using electrical stimuli both to fuse the cultured cell with the enucleated egg and to kick start embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of Megan and Morag demonstrated that viable sheep can be produced by nuclear transfer from cells which have been cultured in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilmut
  • Wilmut and his team of researchers at Roslin created her by using electrical pulses to fuse the mammary cell with an unfertilized egg cell, the nucleus of which had been removed. (britannica.com)
  • humans
  • Now, with reports arriving almost daily about proposals to clone humans, and with similar reports surfacing with disturbing frequency about scientists' planned use of human-derived stem cells, I believe that an in-depth analysis of these two subjects is both timely and warranted. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The concept of mammalian clones, even humans, was not new at the time of Dolly's birth. (britannica.com)
  • A potential example of this is the most serious form of malaria in humans, P. falciparum, which initially targets Neu5Ac on red blood cells for binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolly's
  • The announcement in February 1997 of Dolly's birth marked a milestone in science, dispelling decades of presumption that adult mammals could not be cloned and igniting a debate concerning the many possible uses and misuses of mammalian cloning technology. (britannica.com)
  • The funding for Dolly's cloning was provided by PPL Therapeutics and the UK's Ministry of Agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some in the press speculated that a contributing factor to Dolly's death was that she could have been born with a genetic age of six years, the same age as the sheep from which she was cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult cells
  • Gurdon's experiment showed that differentiated adult cells could be induced to an undifferentiated state, where they could once again become multiple cell types. (asu.edu)
  • scientists
  • The news was that a mammal had been cloned from an adult cell-something that even scientists like James Watson and Francis Crick (who were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their elucidation of the molecular structure of DNA) had gone on record as stating was very likely impossible. (apologeticspress.org)
  • For decades, scientists had tried and failed to clone mammals from existing adults. (britannica.com)
  • The scientists also attempted to clone macaques using nuclei from adult donors, which is much more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling
  • The hedgehog signaling pathway is a mechanism that directs the development of embryonic cells in animals, from invertebrates to vertebrates. (asu.edu)
  • PAK family members are known to be effectors of Rac/Cdc42 GTPases, which have been implicated in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, proliferation, and cell survival signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can conclude that it is a potential source for regulating the level of BMP signaling and can affect germ cell specification. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is most notable for her research on the molecular biology of olfactory signaling in mammals, particularly including pheromones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The S99N mutation results in cell signaling irregularities that interfere with chondrogenesis and osteogenesis causing the fusion of the joints during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • half of the twentieth century
  • Roy Chapman Andrews traveled the world studying fossils, from mammals to dinosaurs, during the first half of the twentieth century. (asu.edu)
  • Sir John Bertrand Gurdon further developed nuclear transplantation, the technique used to clone organisms and to create stem cells, while working in Britain in the second half of the twentieth century. (asu.edu)
  • homolog
  • Mammalian sirtuin 1 ( Sirt1 ), the closest homolog of Sir2 , regulates the cell cycle, senescence, apoptosis, and metabolism by interacting with a number of molecules, including p53, promyelocytic leukemia (PML), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α). (ahajournals.org)
  • nuclei
  • In 1962 researcher John Bertrand Gurdon at the University of Oxford in Oxford, England, conducted a series of experiments on the developmental capacity of nuclei taken from intestinal epithelium cells of feeding tadpoles. (asu.edu)
  • genetically
  • When cells-but not DNA-from two or more genetically distinct individuals combine to form a new individual, the result is called a chimera. (asu.edu)
  • developmental
  • The absence of Fgf9 causes an individual, even an individual with X and Y chromosomes, to develop into a female, as it is needed to carry out important masculinizing developmental functions such as the multiplication of Sertoli cells and creation of the testis cords. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The fusion process resulted in the transfer of the mammary cell nucleus into the egg cell, which then began to divide. (britannica.com)
  • In order for the mammary cell nucleus to be accepted and functional within the host egg, the cell first had to be induced to abandon the normal cycle of growth and division and enter a quiescent stage. (britannica.com)
  • Nuclear transplantation is a method in which the nucleus of a donor cell is relocated to a target cell that has had its nucleus removed (enucleated). (asu.edu)
  • endothelial cells
  • Recently, experimental and clinical studies have indicated that senescence of endothelial cells is involved in endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Senescence of endothelial cells is involved in endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • regulates
  • In mammals, CRY1 and CRY2 are light independent and function to inhibit the CLOCK-BMAL1 dimer of the circadian clock which regulates cycling of Per1 transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ
  • During gastrulation, a hollow cluster of cells called a blastula reorganizes into two primary germ layers: an inner layer, called endoderm, and an outer layer, called ectoderm. (asu.edu)
  • Ectoderm is one of three germ layers--groups of cells that coalesce early during the embryonic life of all animals except maybe sponges, and from which organs and tissues form. (asu.edu)
  • Mesoderm is one of the three germ layers, groups of cells that interact early during the embryonic life of animals and from which organs and tissues form. (asu.edu)
  • enzyme
  • Recombinant TK1 cannot be activated and converted to a tetramer in this way, showing that the enzyme occurring in cells has been modified after synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, in mammals, the peroxisomal enzyme has an extra N-terminal domain that is not present in the mitochondrial counterpart. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic development
  • FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (wikipedia.org)