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  • Proteins
  • The methods used may help investigators genetically engineer cells to produce high levels of certain proteins-for example by placing the DNA sequence of a particular protein at the site of a highly active gene. (phys.org)
  • Electroporation was used to insert purified bacterial virulence effector proteins directly into living eukaryotic cells. (osti.gov)
  • This method allows for studies on trafficking, function, and protein-protein interactions using active exogenous proteins, avoiding the need for heterologous expression in eukaryotic cells. (osti.gov)
  • genomic
  • Furthermore, in each of these species, the mature miRNA sequence is located within −1 to −200 bp of the proximal known gene TSS, suggesting the functional importance of this conserved genomic context in the antisense orientation ( 14 ) ( Fig. 1 A ). miR-320 is encoded directly upstream of the cell cycle gene POLR3D, which is a conserved subunit specific to RNA polymerase III ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • For the first time, researchers have used a simplified technique derived from a defense mechanism evolved by bacteria and other single-celled organisms to successfully insert a large DNA sequence into a predetermined genomic site in mammalian cells. (phys.org)
  • The CRISPR-Cas system has been previously used to insert a foreign DNA sequence into a targeted genomic site in mammalian cells via a process of recombination. (phys.org)
  • Homology-directed repair of DNA damage has recently emerged as a major mechanism for the maintenance of genomic integrity in mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • genetics
  • I am a general chemistry instructor at college and I also work as a science (anatomy & physiology, biology, cell biology, chemistry, genetics, immunology and microbiology) tutor at the same College. (wyzant.com)
  • fluorescence
  • The fibrous, fluorescence patterns that developed in the microinjected cells were almost indistinguishable from the pattern of microtubules seen in the same cells by indirect immunofluorescence. (rupress.org)
  • Studies using fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching confirmed this apparent difference in tubulin dynamics between mitotic and interphase cells. (rupress.org)
  • Find fluorescent dyes, reagents and protocols for cell biology related fluorescence microscopy applications. (thermofisher.com)
  • Using a novel fluorescence-based assay, we demonstrate here that error-free homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks is decreased 25-fold in an XRCC3-deficient hamster cell line and can be restored to wild-type levels through XRCC3 expression. (nih.gov)
  • A ) Two-color fluorescence analysis for cell lines DRaa-40 and DRirs-10. (nih.gov)
  • Wild-type DRaa-40 cells and XRCC3-deficient DRirs-14 cells were electroporated with the I- Sce I expression vector or both the I- Sce I and XRCC3 expression vectors, sorted on the basis of green fluorescence, and then reanalyzed by flow cytometry. (nih.gov)
  • Microgravity
  • Epidermal growth factor-induced cell rounding is sensitive to simulated microgravity," Aviation Space & Environmental Medicine , vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 32-36, 1991. (hindawi.com)
  • Three-dimensional growth patterns of various human tumor cell lines in simulated microgravity of a NASA bioreactor," In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal , vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 459-466, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • Activation of BKCa channel is associated with increased apoptosis of cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells in simulated microgravity rats," American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology , vol. 298, no. 6, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • migration
  • Cell migration affects many physiologic and pathologic processes in mammalian organisms. (rice.edu)
  • To accurately quantify the effects of external stimuli, cell migration was studied using a computer-automated technique that combined video microscopy, digital time-lapse and image analysis. (rice.edu)
  • This approach enabled us to monitor large cell populations and characterize the migration behavior of individual cells. (rice.edu)
  • Since migration is a major factor in determining proliferation rates of anchorage-dependent cells, this type of surface modification can be used to accelerate the endothelization of synthetic vascular grafts and increase their implantation success rates. (rice.edu)
  • The role of metabolism on cell motility was investigated by testing the hypothesis that glycolysis is required for cancer cell migration. (rice.edu)
  • Our measurements demonstrated that rat prostate cancer cells grown in conditioned media did not require glucose to maintain migration. (rice.edu)
  • biology
  • I am currently a student at San Jose State University, and am majoring in Cell and Molecular Biology. (wyzant.com)
  • Vinculin phosphorylation differentially regulates mechanotransduction at cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions," Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 205, no. 2, pp. 251-263, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Without the ability to grow cells in the lab, the fast progress in disciplines like cell biology, immunology, or cancer research would be unthinkable. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, New York, New York 10021, USA. (nih.gov)
  • integrity
  • The ingested chloroplasts retained their structural integrity as determined by electron microscopy of organelles and hybrid cells and by analysis of photochemical activity and DNA in chloroplasts reisolated from cells after 1 or 2 days in culture. (sciencemag.org)
  • bacterial
  • Using knockout library screens, they successfully identified the host components essential for the intoxication of cells by two bacterial toxins, which were confirmed by functional validation. (pku.edu.cn)
  • progeny cells
  • The transient nature of both these methods makes it difficult, if not impossible, to correlate transcription-factor binding events in progenitor cells to the final fates of their progeny cells during development. (genetics.org)
  • Green chloroplasts were followed for five cell generations or 5 days, at which time hybrid cells were greatly outnumbered by nongreen progeny cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • viral
  • The lack of continuous marine crustacean cell lines has become an obstacle to conducting research on viral disease in shrimp (2,3). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • If a cytopathic effect (CPE) was not evident within 7 days, cell monolayers were washed with Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) six times to eliminate viral particles from the primary extract or from infected cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • lines
  • Dear Netters, I wish to express a clone of interest in mammalian cell lines. (bio.net)
  • Mammalian cells are cryopreserved to avoid loss by contamination, to minimize genetic change in continuous cell lines, and to avoid aging and transformation in finite cell lines. (thermofisher.com)
  • Taura syndrome virus and mammalian cell lines. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • During the last 20 years, many researchers searched for substitute cell lines on which to study shrimp viruses (4,5). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • likely chose RD, Hep-2C, and BGM cell lines because TSV was "recently reported to be genomically related to the cricket paralysis virus of the Cripavirus genus, family Dicistrovirdae of the "picornavirus superfamily" (1), and these cell lines were susceptible to some picot naviruses. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The control cell lines were injected with diluted extract from healthy shrimp, and passage was conducted as described earlier. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Had TSV replicated (productive infection) in either of the two cell lines, RT-PCR would have shown a strong amplification from each lysate. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We now have good biological evidence for the existence of an adaptive DNA repair pathway in cultured rodent and human cell lines (2). (springer.com)
  • Samson, L. and Schwartz, J.L: Evidence for an adaptive DNA repair pathway in Chinese hamster ovary and human skin fibroblast cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Although the genome editing system known as CRISPR/Cas has revolutionized genetic research in cell lines, its overall efficiency has been relatively poor when used to generate genetically altered animals for disease modeling. (phys.org)
  • According to their origin, cells can be subdivided into immortalized cell lines, primary cells, and stem cells (including patient specific cells). (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Primary cells are much harder to cultivate than immortalized cell lines. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • B ) Summary of results from several cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • homologous
  • The irs1SF cell line is defective for DSB-induced homologous recombination because of XRCC3 deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • However
  • However, I want to be able to select for the transfected cells so I can maintain the plasmid in the cell line indefinitely. (bio.net)
  • However, treatment with zinc oxide nanoparticles at higher concentrations exerted a greater decrease in cell survival in U87 more so than in HFF-1 cells, compared to the corresponding effects of titanium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles. (nsti.org)
  • However, heparin significantly reduced irradiated cell size especially when used together with basic fibroblast growth factor. (rice.edu)
  • However, the approach developed from Wei lab is better suited for broader range of cell types, and is particularly advantageous for knowledge-based screening. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Jurkat
  • IMDM (Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium) is well suited for rapidly proliferating, high-density cell cultures, including Jurkat, COS-7, and macrophage cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • cytoplasm
  • 1974), it was shown that egg cell cytoplasm could redirect the differentiative pathway of nuclei from cells at much later stages of development. (springer.com)
  • R. G. Bacabac, T. H. Smit, J. J. W. A. van Loon, B. Z. Doulabi, M. Helder, and J. Klein-Nulend, "Bone cell responses to high-frequency vibration stress: does the nucleus oscillate within the cytoplasm? (hindawi.com)
  • The organelles resided in the cell cytoplasm and were not contained in vacuoles or digestion vesicles. (sciencemag.org)
  • establish
  • Resuspend the detached cells in a complete growth medium and establish the viable cell count. (thermofisher.com)
  • Control elements of the tetracycline-resistance operon encoded in Tn10 of Escherichia coli have been utilized to establish a highly efficient regulatory system in mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • widely
  • DMEM (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium) is a widely used basal medium for supporting the growth of many different mammalian cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Arrayed and pooled screens using RNAi libraries targeting either human or mouse genomes have already been developed and widely used for systematic genetic studies in mammalian cells. (pku.edu.cn)
  • human
  • Human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HCT116 (ATCC) was maintained in McCoy's 5A Media Modified (Gibco) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Gibco). (genetics.org)
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells are sensitive to abnormal gravity and exhibit classic apoptotic features," Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica , vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 133-142, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • The obvious progression from finding a new type of DNA repair in E . coli was to ask whether an equivalent pathway exists in mammalian cells, and ultimately whether it exists in human cells. (springer.com)
  • Compared to the 46 chromosomes of normal human cells, their nuclei have around 80 chromosomes. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Taking advantage of the targeted genome editing technologies, Wei lab developed a focused CRISPR/Cas9-based lentiviral library in human cells and a method of gene identification based on functional screening and high-throughput sequencing analysis. (pku.edu.cn)
  • This work was published online on April 9 in Nature(High-throughput Screening of a CRISPR/Cas9 Library for Functional Genomics in Human Cells). (pku.edu.cn)
  • describe
  • Finally, a computer model was developed to describe the dynamics of large populations of migrating, interacting and proliferating cells. (rice.edu)
  • Resuspend
  • Resuspend cells in freezing medium to a concentration of 1 x 10 7 to 5 x 10 7 cells/mL for serum-containing medium, or 0.5 x 10 7 to 1 x 10 7 cells/mL for serum-free medium. (thermofisher.com)
  • factors
  • Biaglow J.E., Varnes M.E., Jacobson B., Koch C.J. (1983) Factors Influencing the Oxygen Consumption and Radiation Response of Cultured Mammalian Cells. (springer.com)
  • promoter
  • One conserved miRNA, miR-320, is encoded within the promoter region of the cell cycle gene POLR3D in the antisense orientation. (pnas.org)