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  • embryos
  • Nevertheless, starting with a collection of mammary cell nuclei and host egg cytoplasms derived from Scottish Blackface ewes, a number of fused couplets successfully formed embryos . (britannica.com)
  • Scientists have applied somatic cell nuclear transfer to clone human and mammalian embryos as a means to produce stem cells for laboratory and medical use. (asu.edu)
  • From this experiment, Willadsen made viable mammalian embryos using his modified techniques, but they didn't grow into adult organisms. (asu.edu)
  • In contrast, when they repeated the experiment with cells from later-stage embryos, the percentage of transplanted nuclei that gave rise to embryos and animals dropped precipitously. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Dr. Campbell joined the Roslin Institute in 1991 where he applied his previous experience to the production of mammalian embryos by nuclear transfer. (usda.gov)
  • In male mammalian embryos, Sox9 activates expression of Amh, which initiates the regression of the Mullerian ducts and inhibits the expression of aromatase (Cyp19a1), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens. (nih.gov)
  • Reduced protein synthesis has been measured in both Drosophila embryos and in mouse fibroblasts and hematopoietic cells from heterozygous, Rp+/- genotypes (Lee, 2018). (sdbonline.org)
  • The simplest form of artificial cloning is embryo splitting-separating the blastomeres of an early embryo and forming two or more smaller embryos. (pnas.org)
  • The zebrafish homologue of the human myeloperoxidase (MPO) gene, which is specific to cells of the neutrophil lineage, was cloned and used to synthesize antisense RNA probes for in situ hybridization analyses of zebrafish embryos. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are studied carefully by scientists not just because they are a potential source of stem cells that circumvents ethical controversy involved with experimentation on human embryos, but also because of their unique potential to advance the field of regenerative medicine. (asu.edu)
  • The sites of blood development and the molecular signals regulating hematopoiesis are conserved with mammalian systems, and zebrafish embryos are transparent, allowing for noninvasive visualization of HSC emergence, migration, and engraftment. (rupress.org)
  • Zebrafish embryos are fertilized externally, develop rapidly, and are amenable to genetic modification, which allows relatively straightforward creation of transgenic reporter lines labeling specific cell populations. (rupress.org)
  • In addition, the transparency of the embryos has enabled real-time visualization of the emergence, migration, and behavior of blood cells as they populate the embryo and adult, both during endogenous development and upon various chemical or genetic perturbations. (rupress.org)
  • Using wildtype or engineered stem cell lines, researchers may use this technique to uncover the various mechanisms or treatments that may affect early brain infection and resulting microcephaly in Zika virus-infected embryos. (jove.com)
  • He used chick embryos instead of adult animals, then customary in brain research, to study the development and physiology of the cerebellum, spinal cord, and retina. (asu.edu)
  • Fetal
  • The birth of lambs from differentiated fetal and adult cells also reinforces previous speculation that by inducing donor cells to became quiescent it will be possible to obtain normal development from a wide variety of differentiated cells. (todayinsci.com)
  • Transfer of Fetal Cells with Multilineage Potential to Maternal Tissue' (2004), by Kiarash Khosrotehrani et al. (asu.edu)
  • Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts, investigated the fetal cells that remained in the maternal blood stream after pregnancy. (asu.edu)
  • The results were published in Transfer of Fetal Cells with Multilineage Potential to Maternal Tissue. (asu.edu)
  • In 2007, Dennis Lo and his colleagues used digital polymerase chain reaction or PCR to detect trisomy 21 in maternal blood, validating the method as a means to detect fetal chromosomal aneuploidies, or an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell. (asu.edu)
  • They were made from fetal cells grown in a petri dish and were born in shanghai. (sd43.bc.ca)
  • In later stages of development, hematopoiesis moves to the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region and the fetal liver, 15 whereas in adults definitive hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow where all blood cell lineages are produced. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • humans
  • Now, with reports arriving almost daily about proposals to clone humans, and with similar reports surfacing with disturbing frequency about scientists' planned use of human-derived stem cells, I believe that an in-depth analysis of these two subjects is both timely and warranted. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The concept of mammalian clones, even humans, was not new at the time of Dolly's birth. (britannica.com)
  • Most Rps are essential, and cells homozygous for their mutations die, while heterozygous Rp mutants that lack one copy of the gene are abnormal in both humans and in Drosophila (Lee, 2018). (sdbonline.org)
  • The process of cloning an animal is similar to that of a human, hence the following procedure can be likened to the process of cloning humans. (schoolworkhelper.net)
  • Even though after all of these amazing discoveries, they will not procced onto cloning humans until they know 100% that the clone will come out perfect and healthy. (sd43.bc.ca)
  • John Hilton Edwards first described the symptoms of the genetic disorder known as Trisomy 18 - one of the most common forms of trisomy, which occurs when cells have an extra copy of a chromosome, in humans - in 1960. (asu.edu)
  • He measured the conditions and timings for in vitro (out of the body) maturation of oocytes from diverse mammals including mice, rats, hamsters, pigs, cows, sheep, and rhesus monkeys, as well as humans. (asu.edu)
  • As a result of the success of recent experiments in genetic engineering, the cloning of humans is on the minds of many, both among the general populace and with in the scientific community. (apologeticspress.org)
  • In the past, the cloning of humans was a subject best discussed within the genre of science fiction novels, not scientific journals. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Each day humans require the production of about 100 billion blood cells. (rupress.org)
  • Specifically, the evolutionary distance between amphibians and mammals, including humans, allows for the study of both species-specific adaptations, as well as conserved features of the immune system. (mdpi.com)
  • nuclear transfer
  • Although Karl Illmensee first cloned a mammal in 1981, other scientists had theorized and developed the techniques needed for SCNT in the form of nuclear transfer. (asu.edu)
  • Scientists performed nuclear transfer only on amphibians until 1981, when Illmensee in Geneva, Switzerland, claimed to have cloned mice using nuclear transfer technique. (asu.edu)
  • Although the investigators never found conclusive evidence against Illmensee, the investigation cast doubts as to whether or not he had used nuclear transfer to clone the mice. (asu.edu)
  • Scientists struggled to perform nuclear transfer on mammals larger than mice. (asu.edu)
  • In cell biology, it is the propagation of a progenitor cell to obtain a population of genetically identical cells whereas, in animal biology, cloning refers to the production of genetic copies of individual animals using nuclear transfer. (pnas.org)
  • Nuclear Transfer naar Mouse Eicellen Dieter Egli 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Deze film en het protocol zijn bedoeld om te leren nucleaire transfer. (jove.com)
  • 1995
  • Cell adhesion also depends upon carbohydrate-protein interactions, mediated by mammalian lectins of different families (Sharon N & Lis H 1995 Essays Biochem 30:59-75). (google.com)
  • SCNT
  • Most cells in therapeutic cloning are produced by the use of SCNT. (schoolworkhelper.net)
  • As illustrated below, basic research regarding the biological mechanisms of SCNT has led to scientific advances in the areas of reprogramming, cell fate determination, and epigenetic regulation during development. (pnas.org)
  • nuclei
  • Gurdon's first experiment in 1958 showed that the nuclei of Xenopus cells maintained their ability to direct normal development when transplanted. (asu.edu)
  • 2000
  • The first successful cloning of a gaur in 2000 by Advanced Cell Technology involved the cells of two animals: an egg cell from a domestic cow and a skin cell from a gaur. (asu.edu)
  • In 2000 ACT researchers in the United States cloned a gaur (Bos gaurus), an Asian ox with a then declining wild population. (asu.edu)
  • mice
  • In 2006, Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka reprogrammed mice fibroblast cells, which can produce only other fibroblast cells, to become pluripotent stem cells, which have the capacity to produce many different types of cells. (asu.edu)
  • 1979: Karl Illmenssee claims to clone 3 mice. (sd43.bc.ca)
  • Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Tony Perry, and Teruhiko Wakayama clone 50 mice form adult cells, 2. (sd43.bc.ca)
  • Studies in amphibians, rabbits, and mice suggested that the very early cleavage stages (two-cell to four-cell) were flexible and that each blastomere could yield a viable blastocyst. (pnas.org)
  • She has worked with various cancers and produced viable mice from the cells of a teratoma. (asu.edu)
  • eggs
  • To enucleate the eggs, Briggs and King used a small glass needle to puncture the cell membrane, enter the cytoplasm, and suck out the nucleus of the egg cell. (asu.edu)
  • The schistosomules must now evade the host immune system, develop a gut for digestion of red blood cells, and migrate though the lungs and portal circulation en route to their final destination in the hepatic portal system and eventually the mesenteric veins (for S. mansoni ) where male and female worms pair and mate, producing hundreds of eggs daily. (jove.com)
  • The females laid diploid eggs that were clones of themselves, and the males were infertile. (answersingenesis.org)
  • When sperm cells actually fertilized the eggs, the results were triploid individuals. (answersingenesis.org)
  • In the early 1920s, researchers Edgar Allen and Edward Adelbert Doisy conducted an experiment that demonstrated that ovarian follicles, which produce eggs in mammals, also contain and produce what they called the primary ovarian hormone, later renamed estrogen. (asu.edu)
  • tadpole
  • The amphibian Xenopus permits the examination of immune responses in a species that progresses through two distinct lives, tadpole and adult, in which animals are free-living and immunocompetent. (jimmunol.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • Apoptosis is programmed cell death and involves a sequence of cellular events involving: a. fragmenting of the nucleus, b. blistering of the plasma membrane, and c. engulfing of cell fragments by macrophages and/or neighboring cells. (slideshare.net)
  • We find that flies reared on ethanol-containing food have smaller brains and imaginal discs, which is due to reduced cell division rather than increased apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • gene
  • Of particular interest were changes that occurred to DNA during an animal's development , whereby patterns in gene expression were altered as cells became increasingly specialized in function. (britannica.com)
  • There are also three types of artificial cloning including therapeutic cloning, reproductive cloning and gene cloning. (schoolworkhelper.net)
  • Firstly, genetic on cloning, or gene cloning, is the process by which a gene is cloned by isolating a specific gene a locus of a chromosomal cell (the location of a gene on a chromosome) and making a duplicate of the gene. (schoolworkhelper.net)
  • In this type of cloning, a fragment of DNA is inserted into an element capable of self-replication such as a bacterial plasmid, which in turn is inserted into a host cell, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, in order to create multiple copies of the original gene. (smore.com)
  • High-throughput Screening of Gene Function in Stem Cells Using Clonal Microarrays Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). (jove.com)
  • Cell growth, cell migration, and gene expression are influenced by the interaction between cells and their extracellular matrix. (asu.edu)
  • We obtained molecular clones for the STAT proteins , and antisera to these proteins allowed the demonstration that interferon-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation followed by dimerization of the proteins and nuclear translocation is the basis for gene activation. (rockefeller.edu)
  • It has been shown in HeLa cells that TEAD2 and SRC induce gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrate
  • During vertebrate hematopoietic development, common myeloid progenitors give rise to separate precursors for cells of the granulocyte/macrophage and erythrocyte/megakaryocyte lineages. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The hallmark of vertebrate gastrulation is the reorganization of the inner cell mass (ICM) into the three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. (asu.edu)
  • progenitor
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cells from the posterior blood island enter the circulation slightly later than those in the ICM and may represent the end stage of primitive hematopoiesis. (bloodjournal.org)
  • A central question is whether the generation of progenitor cells during limb regeneration and mammalian tissue repair occur via separate or overlapping mechanisms. (rupress.org)
  • researchers
  • To accomplish that, researchers deliberately withheld nutrients from the cells. (britannica.com)
  • Researchers struggled to clone mammals using the same procedure that Briggs and King used on frogs. (asu.edu)
  • The researchers concluded that permanent nuclear changes occur as cells specialize. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • The researchers extracted the egg cell from the ovary of the domestic cow and the skin cell from the skin of the gaur. (asu.edu)
  • First, the researchers performed nuclear transplantation on the egg cell of the cow, during which they removed the nucleus of the egg cell. (asu.edu)
  • Researchers have identified a family of proteins called cyclins, internal signals that increase or decrease during the cell cycle. (slideshare.net)
  • organisms
  • As a verb, "to clone" means to produce identical genetic copies of either pieces of DNA, cells, or whole organisms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Natural cloning has always occurred as has natural selection along with evolution which has allowed organisms to evolve throughout the history of earth. (schoolworkhelper.net)
  • Although we restrict our comments to H3 variants in mammals, we expect that the more general concepts presented here will apply to other histone variant families in organisms that employ them. (pnas.org)
  • biology
  • Remember the definition of a mammal from your high school biology textbook? (apologeticspress.org)
  • The word "clone" has several different meanings in biology. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We cloned and assessed the function of two insulin receptors from Schistosoma japonicum in order to shed light on their role in schistosome biology. (jove.com)
  • Recombinant DNA technology or molecular cloning has been in use since the 1970's and is commonplace in the field of molecular biology. (smore.com)
  • Barwy Pasażowanie ludzkich embrionalnych komórek macierzystych linii Trypsyna Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard W tym filmie pokazujemy, jak w naszym laboratorium rutynowo fragmenty barwy linii ludzkich zarodkowych komórek macierzystych, z trypsyny. (jove.com)
  • Zamrażanie komórek ES człowieka Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Tutaj pokazujemy, jak w naszym laboratorium zawiesza barwy linii ludzkich zarodkowych komórek macierzystych. (jove.com)
  • Człowieka komórek ES: Kultura Od mrożone komórki Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Tutaj pokazujemy, jak w naszym laboratorium rozpoczyna odcienie ludzkich zarodkowych komórek macierzystych kultury linii mrożonych ręki. (jove.com)
  • Transfer jądra do komórki jajowej myszy Dieter Egli 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Ten film i protokół mają pomóc nauki transfer jądra. (jove.com)
  • Passage TINTEN menselijke embryonale stamcellijnen-lijnen met trypsine Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard In deze video laten we zien hoe onze lab routinematig TINTEN menselijke embryonale stamcellijnen passages met trypsine. (jove.com)
  • Invriezen menselijke embryonale stamcellen Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Hier laten we zien hoe onze lab TINTEN menselijke embryonale stamcellijnen bevriest. (jove.com)
  • Menselijke ES-cellen: Vanaf Cultuur van bevroren cellen Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Hier laten we zien hoe onze lab een TINTEN menselijke embryonale stamcellen lijn cultuur begint met een bevroren voorraad. (jove.com)
  • Recent scientific achievements in cell and developmental biology have provided unprecedented opportunities for advances in biomedical research. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Genetics
  • In addition, the availability of major histocompatibility (MHC)-defined X . laevis animal inbred strains, gynogenetic clones, and cell lines, coupled with a powerful and continuously improving reverse genetics approach provide the basic tools for addressing fundamental questions about the ontogeny and phylogeny of the immune system [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • germ layers
  • During gastrulation, a hollow cluster of cells called a blastula reorganizes into two primary germ layers: an inner layer, called endoderm, and an outer layer, called ectoderm. (asu.edu)
  • hematopoietic
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an important therapy for patients with a variety of hematological malignancies. (rupress.org)
  • Rare hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are required to replenish multilineage progenitors, which can then differentiate into lineage-restricted cells (reviewed by Orkin and Zon, 2008 ). (rupress.org)
  • Hematopoietic cells that support early stages of development are formed during the primitive wave (reviewed by Orkin and Zon, 2008 ). (rupress.org)
  • thus
  • and (2) Hippo signaling activity in one cell type influences proliferation of other cell types, thus ensuring appropriate proportions of different ovarian cell types. (prolekare.cz)
  • Their breakthrough involved starving body cells of nutrients, thus interrupting the normal cycle of growth and division. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Thus, much of the information coded within the DNA of adult cells no longer is accessible, having been "turned off " at maturity because it no longer is needed by the cell. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Thus the pathway appears to serve a very general role in cell regulation. (rockefeller.edu)
  • therapeutic
  • Therapeutic cloning can be used for organ replacements such as hearts or kidneys to essentially prolong the life of an individual and possibly eliminate death and the finite existence of humanity. (schoolworkhelper.net)
  • This means that therapeutic cloning only serves to further exacerbate the ongoing problems associated with discovering the causes of disease and genetic disorders. (schoolworkhelper.net)
  • iPSCs
  • They called the pluripotent stem cells that they produced induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) because they had induced the adult cells, called differentiated cells, to become pluripotent stem cells through genetic manipulation. (asu.edu)
  • Here, we evaluate the research progress in different cell sources with a focus on using iPSCs as a valuable source and propose key challenges for developing cells suitable for large-scale clinical applications in the treatment of PD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If we can further our understanding of developmental hematopoiesis and identify key regulators of these processes in vivo, it may be possible to apply this knowledge to in vitro efforts to derive patient-specific HSCs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (rupress.org)
  • developmental
  • We show that developmental ethanol exposure causes reduced viability, developmental delay and reduced adult body size. (biologists.org)
  • Transgenic expression of Dilp proteins in the larval brain suppressed both the developmental and behavioral abnormalities displayed by ethanol-reared adult flies. (biologists.org)
  • The ability of alcohol to cause developmental anomalies has been demonstrated in a broad range of taxa, from insects to mammals. (biologists.org)
  • Animal models have shown that adult responses to ethanol are significantly altered by developmental ethanol exposure. (biologists.org)
  • oocytes
  • In adult ovaries, amh and cyp19a1a were expressed in granulosa cells surrounding the oocytes, and sox9b was expressed in a complementary fashion in the ooplasm of oocytes. (nih.gov)