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  • reproductive
  • For example, Harvard graduate and founder of a company dedicated to reproductive technology, Richard Seed declared that he would move to Japan and be the first to create a human clone (Andrews). (scribd.com)
  • The two main types of cloning are reproductive and therapeutic. (scribd.com)
  • Reproductive cloning would be done with the purpose of creating new life, for infertile couples for example. (scribd.com)
  • The Roman Catholic view is distinct from that of many religious groups in that its opposition to cloning is part of the church's broader aversion toward any reproductive technique that divides conception from marital intercourse, including artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization. (washingtontimes.com)
  • In its first report last year, the 18-member President's Council on Bioethics unanimously declared reproductive cloning 'morally unacceptable' and urged a permanent, nationwide legal ban. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Though large majorities in both houses of Congress support a ban on cloning to create babies, only the House passed a bill last year that would prohibit both reproductive and research cloning. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Divide
  • It is as important that cells stop dividing as that they divide. (libretexts.org)
  • It is a useful generality that cells tend to lose the ability to divide as they become differentiated. (libretexts.org)
  • Stem cells are a supply of undifferentiated (or partly differentiated) cells that can still divide. (libretexts.org)
  • Normally a female germ cell begins to divide when it has about 150 cells - at this point stem cells can be harvested. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The hybrid cell is then stimulated to divide by an electric shock, and when it develops into a blastocyst it is implanted in a surrogate mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rare instances, the newly constructed cell will divide normally, replicating the new DNA while remaining in a pluripotent state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Those working with DNA refer to cloning a gene -- making many copies of it outside its normal environment. (libretexts.org)
  • Commonly a virus that has been altered to carry human DNA is used to deliver the healthy gene to the targeted cells of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in which the chromosome carrying the orange (O) allele is inactivated express the alternative non-orange (o) allele, determined by the (B) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene, the first cloned calf in the world was born in 1997 at the American Breeders Service facilities in Deforest, Wisconsin, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Remember the definition of a mammal from your high school biology textbook? (apologeticspress.org)
  • The word 'cloning' has various meanings in biology. (libretexts.org)
  • Some of the figures I showed are from Lodish et al, Molecular Cell Biology (4th edition, 2000), or are similar to figures from that book. (libretexts.org)
  • To the contrary, we found that cloned pups can be produced from adult, fully differentiated somatic cells, a conclusion that goes against popular opinion and current hypotheses," says Dr. Yang, animal science professor, director of the University of Connecticut's Center for Regenerative Biology and co-corresponding author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • granulocytes
  • Granulocytes are well characterized white blood cells unique for their segmented nuclei and the numerous granules in the cells' cytoplasm. (eurekalert.org)
  • Only the granulocytes were able to produce two live cloned pups, although both died within a few hours of birth. (eurekalert.org)
  • Even we were surprised to find fully differentiated cells were more efficient for cloning, because granulocytes are not capable of dividing. (eurekalert.org)
  • animal
  • Can a specific cell from an animal be cloned? (madsci.org)
  • Subject: Can a specific cell from an animal be cloned? (madsci.org)
  • Can a cell from an animal(a fish or a mammal) be duplicated?Cloned? (madsci.org)
  • PITTSBURGH, Oct. 1 - New research dismisses the notion that adult stem cells are necessary for successful animal cloning, proving instead that cells that have completely evolved to a specific type not only can be used for cloning purposes, but they may be a better and more efficient starting point. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is the first demonstration that an animal can be derived directly from a fully differentiated cell, report lead researchers Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang, Ph.D., of the University of Connecticut, and Tao Cheng, M.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, in the journal Nature Genetics. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since Dolly, animal cloning using adult cells has been accomplished in more than a dozen mammalian species, but the process is highly inefficient. (medgadget.com)
  • As of 2005[update], Megan was still alive and was the oldest cloned animal at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers led by Tomohiro Kono at the Tokyo University of Agriculture used cells from two different female mice and combined them to make a single unique animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is not a cloned animal because cells from two individuals are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cloned animal are included in list when citing science sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pampa, a Jersey calf, was the first animal cloned in Argentina (by the company Bio Sidus) in 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injaz
  • Injaz, a cloned female dromedary camel, was born in 2009 at the Camel Reproduction Center in Dubai, United Arab Emirates after an "uncomplicated" gestation of 378 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xiangzhong
  • A Holstein heifer named Daisy was cloned by Dr. Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang using ear skin cells from a high-merit cow named Aspen at the University of Connecticut in 1999, followed by three additional clones, Amy, Betty, and Cathy in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • As proof, researchers report they created two mouse pups from a type of blood cell that itself is incapable of dividing to produce a second generation of its own kind. (eurekalert.org)
  • In their studies, the researchers compared the efficiency for cloning mice using a fully differentiated blood cell called a granulocyte with its ancestor cells at different stages: hematopoietic stem cells, which are found in bone marrow and give rise to all red and white blood cells, and progenitor cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, because iPS can sometimes cause unexpected mutations in the cells, researchers have been seeking alternative methods. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Still, lab entrepreneurs in Korea, China, England and elsewhere are suddenly worried that their precious head start on cloning technology is about to be snatched back by a few forward-looking biotech researchers in the United States. (dailypress.com)
  • nucleus
  • only the nucleus of the cell to be cloned is used, and it is transferred to an egg cell that has been deprived of its own nucleus. (libretexts.org)
  • The steps involve removing the DNA from an oocyte (unfertilised egg), and injecting the nucleus which contains the DNA to be cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials used in this procedure are a microscope, a holding pipette (small vacuum) to keep the oocyte in place, and a micropipette (hair-thin needle) capable of extracting the nucleus of a cell using a vacuum. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • For example, in May and June 1997, I authored a series on "Cloning-Scientific and Biblical Ramifications. (apologeticspress.org)
  • On February 24, 1997, President Bill Clinton gave the NBAC 90 days to advise him on ethical issues concerning the cloning of human beings (Eiseman). (scribd.com)
  • 2018
  • On 24 January 2018, two monkey clones were reported to have been created with the technique for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • From a biological classification viewpoint, is a human a mammal? (apologeticspress.org)
  • Is human cloning ethical? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Popular in science fiction and the cause of a lot of disagreement in the real world, human cloning is a delicate issue. (scribd.com)
  • Though actual human cloning has not yet been achieved, other relevant scientific endeavours have been successful. (scribd.com)
  • Interestingly, human cloning itself was not banned in the United States at this time, though certain states banned it. (scribd.com)
  • However, around the world, many countries began producing legislation that forbade human cloning. (scribd.com)
  • This was all done before much debate had been had over the ethics of human cloning. (scribd.com)
  • Though neither of these attempts were successful, both show that attempts on human cloning will still occur as long as there is no worldwide legislation. (scribd.com)
  • order to clone a human, one might have to experiment on foetuses past this point. (scribd.com)
  • With such disagreement in simply what constitutes a human being, it is no wonder human cloning is a major social issue in the world. (scribd.com)
  • The Raelian movement may or may not prove it produced the first cloned human, but the sect already can claim another distinction: It is virtually the only religious group that says this type of reproduction is a good idea. (washingtontimes.com)
  • For example, the Rev. Richard Land, social-issues spokesman for the Southern Baptist Convention, notes the premature aging among cloned mammals and says 'sooner rather than later, we are going to be presented with horrific human tragedies coming out of these laboratories. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Not so long ago, he scraped some cells from his arm and injected them into human female eggs that had been treated to remove their own genetic material. (dailypress.com)
  • The science-fiction nut jobs are imagining cloned armies of human killing machines. (dailypress.com)
  • 2016
  • In 2015 the Chinese company BoyaLife announced that in partnership with the Korean company Sooam Biotech, they were planning to build a factory in Tianjin, China to produce 100,000 cloned cattle per year, starting in 2016 to supply China's growing market for quality beef. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2016 the scientist at the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes in Hisar, India announced that they had cloned a buffalo offspring "Cirb Gaurav" using cells of the ventral side of the tail of superior buffalo. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • The experiments indicated how to reprogram nuclei from differentiated cells to produce live offspring, and that a single population of differentiated cells could produce multiple offspring. (asu.edu)
  • Also, the result showed that the heat mammals produce through respiration allowed their bodies to be above room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • PHS and phytoceramide exist in particular tissues such as the epidermis in mammals, and involvement of ceramide species in PPARβ activation in cultured keratinocytes has been reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent studies have suggested that the gradual development of clock genes rhythmically express in the SCN and peripheral tissues of mammals during ontogenesis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Among its related pathways are Regulation of retinoblastoma protein and Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
  • CFL1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_005498), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15NL-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15NL-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. (creative-proteomics.com)
  • Tyrosine sulfation has been found to be an important part of the inflammatory process, leukocyte movement and cytosis, viral cell entrance, and other cell-cell and protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another substrate for TPST, CC-chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5), has generated interest because of its role as the target protein for the viral entrance of HIV into cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is specifically expressed in club cells in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numb protein signaling plays a key role in binary cell fate decisions following asymmetric cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, there are four alternatively spliced forms of the Numb protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both invertebrates and mammals, Numb is localized using the Pins/GαI complex and the PAR complex of Bazooka (Par3 in mammals), Par6, and aPKC (atypical protein kinase C). In the sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell, the PAR proteins localize to the posterior pole of the cell, and the Pins/GαI complex is localized to the anterior pole of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the stomach, somatostatin acts directly on the acid-producing parietal cells via a G-protein coupled receptor (which inhibits adenylate cyclase, thus effectively antagonising the stimulatory effect of histamine) to reduce acid secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the 561 amino acid EFS protein acts as a scaffolding protein for cell signaling based on interactions with SRC, FAK, and other proteins, and has been linked to roles in the function of the immune system, and the development of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • circadian
  • It suggests a fundamental connection among circadian timing, cell cycle progress, and potentially the origins of some cancers. (rxpgnews.com)
  • RxPG] Dartmouth Medical School geneticists have discovered that DNA damage resets the cellular circadian clock, suggesting links among circadian timing, the cycle of cell division, and the propensity for cancer. (rxpgnews.com)
  • enzyme
  • The investigators demonstrated that this was a direct result of action by an enzyme, called in mammals checkpoint kinase-2 (CHK2), whose normal role is exclusively in regulating the cell division cycle. (rxpgnews.com)
  • neural
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Probably involved in the regulatory networks that define neural crest cell fate specification and determine mesoderm cell lineages in mammals. (genecards.org)
  • amino
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotide
  • While no single nucleotide was selected in every clone on either side of the ATTGG motif (CCAAT in the complementary strand), there were several nucleotides in positions selected with high frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Picornaviruses are found in mammals and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • After DNMT1 knockout in human cancer cells, these cells were found to retain their inherited methylation pattern, which suggests maintenance activity by the expressed DNMT3s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, it was found that differentiation was partially rescued if Dnmt3a-/- HSCs experienced an additional Ctnb1 knockdown - Ctnb1 codes for β-catenin, which participates in self-renewal cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been found that DNMT3A-mutated cell lines exhibit transcriptome instability, in that they have much more erroneous RNA splicing as compared to their isogenic[disambiguation needed] wildtype counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • The notion that the clock regulates DNA-damage input and that mutation can affect the clock as well as the cell cycle is novel. (rxpgnews.com)
  • apical
  • In polarized epithelial cells, syntaxin 3 localizes to the apical plasma membrane and is involved in membrane fusion of apical trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • These cells exhibit functional and structural asymmetry in their apical and basolateral plasma membranes that is essential to their function. (rupress.org)
  • The clear distinction between apical and basolateral trafficking pathways makes epithelial cells a good system in which to test the central prediction of the SNARE hypothesis on their contribution to the overall specificity of trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • In neuroblasts, both complexes are localized to the apical cortex, causing apical/basal cell division and daughter cells exhibiting strong size asymmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. (abnova.com)
  • fibroblasts
  • In a mixed culture containing fibroblasts and monocytic cells, interferon-γ stimulated Trx release from monocytes, which in turn activated TG2 around the fibroblasts. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In culture, fibroblasts can reach a maximum of 50 cell divisions before becoming senescent. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • For example, epithelial cells face the outside world or lumen of an organ on one side, and the interstitial environment and basement membrane on the other. (rupress.org)
  • Epithelial cells generally contain at least two different plasma membrane syntaxins. (rupress.org)
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), alkaline phosphatase is located in the periplasmic space, external to the inner cell membrane and within the peptidoglycan portion of the cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • It states that a complex phosphorylation cascade enables aPKC to phosphorylate Numb in the pre-mitotic cell, decreasing its affinity for the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • As such, the main purpose of dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase is to increase the rate of diffusion of the molecules into the cells and inhibit them from diffusing out. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the anterior pituitary gland, the effects of somatostatin are: Inhibit the release of growth hormone (GH) (thus opposing the effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)) Inhibit the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Inhibit adenylyl cyclase in parietal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • Sphingolipids were added to the cells and the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the transcriptional activity of PPARs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lineage
  • Using a previously established mouse ES-cell-based system that recapitulates the development of the ectoderm lineage we have identified a transient population that is consistent with definitive ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • In Xenopus , the germline is specified through the inheritance of germ plasm formed during oogenesis and asymmetrically segregated into the future germ cell lineage. (biologists.org)
  • inactivation
  • However, in Purkinje cells Cn2 can induce an inactivation block in a stimulation paradigm that in control conditions induced regular firing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the periplasmic gap is more prone to environmental variation than the inner cell, alkaline phosphatase is suitably resistant to inactivation, denaturation, or degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • although substantially less virulent than if contained within the viral particle, the RNA can have increased infectivity when transfected into cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)