• The proteobacteria Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei, distinct from the Burkholderia cepacia complex, cause melioidosis and glanders, respectively [1]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glanders is not airborne, it's an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei , usually by ingestion of contaminated food or water. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Burkholderia mallei is a gram-negative bacterium causing glanders and farcy in solipeds (1, 2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei ( Bp ) and Burkholderia mallei ( Bm ), the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, cause severe disease in both humans and animals. (nature.com)
  • The genetically related Burkholderia mallei ( Bm ), the causative agent of glanders, primarily infects solipeds but can also lead to fatal infections in humans if left untreated 4 . (nature.com)
  • The most recent case of glanders (in 2000) was diagnosed in a laboratory worker that was working with the Burkholderia mallei bacterium. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Glanders is caused by the zoonotic gram-negative nonencapsulated nonmotile aerobic bacterium, Burkholderia mallei. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are closely related Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the infectious diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Burkholderia mallei is closely related to B. pseudomallei and is the etiological agent of Glanders, an infectious equine disease that can be transmitted to humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • B. mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, has come under renewed scientific investigation as a result of recent concerns about its past and potential future use as a biological weapon. (umd.edu)
  • Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of a Burkholderia mallei strain isolated from a diseased dromedary in Bahrain revealed close genetic proximity to strain Dubai 7, which caused an outbreak of glanders in horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004. (cdc.gov)
  • Glanders, a World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-listed disease, is a contagious, life-threatening disease of equids caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to horses and donkeys, dromedaries showed clinical signs of glanders, but B. mallei infection has not yet been confirmed. (cdc.gov)
  • Burkholderia mallei is the etiologic agent of glanders in solipeds (horses, mules and donkeys), and incidentally in carnivores and humans. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that CtpA regulates in vitro growth, cell morphology and intracellular survival of B. mallei, and a ctpA mutant protects CD1 mice against glanders. (nih.gov)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei, the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, are designated category B biothreat agents. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Little is known about the virulence factors of Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders. (nih.gov)
  • The results presented here demonstrate that the capsular polysaccharide of B. mallei is required for production of disease in two animal models of glanders infection and is a major virulence factor. (nih.gov)
  • Glanders is caused by infection with the bacterium Burkholderia mallei , and melioidosis is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei . (centerforhealthsecurity.org)
  • Burkholderia mallei is an obligate mammalian pathogen that causes glanders, a disease that is found in much of the world apart from North America, Europe and Australia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glanders is a disease of Equidae caused by Burkholderia mallei, which also has zoonotic potential: Apart from humans, wildcats (zoos! (laboklin.com)
  • The invention relates to biotechnology, molecular biology, molecular epidemiology, and can be used in medicine to detect differential DNA fragment WMA in the scheme genotyping of the causative agent of glanders Burkholderia mallei as for practical health, service, Rospotrebnadzor, and for scientific research. (russianpatents.com)
  • The causative agent of glanders (Burkholderia mallei) is an aerobic gram-negative non-fermentative bacterium belonging to the genus Burkholderia and related to potential agents of bioterrorism Century group Can particularly dangerous zoonotic infection. (russianpatents.com)
  • On the basis of theoretical study sequenced the nucleotide sequences of the four strains of the causative agent of glanders, present in the databases (EMBL, Genbank, DDBJ), for design of primers was selected variable sequence WMA detected in silico in the first chromosome of strains .mallei NCTC 10229 and .mallei ADS 23344. (russianpatents.com)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei cause the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Burkholderia mallei is the aetiological agent of glanders, a highly contagious and re-emerging zoonotic disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The established LAMP assay is field adaptable and can be a better and viable alternative to PCR-based techniques for detection of B. mallei in glanders endemic areas with resource-limited settings. (cdc.gov)
  • Malleus may also refer to: Malleus (bivalve), a genus of bivalves Malleus (disease), a bacterial infection Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of Witches), an early modern European treatise on witches Malleus Scotorum ("Hammer of the Scots"), byname of King Edward I of England Malleolus, a structure in mammalian skeletal anatomy Malleolus (arthropod), an external organ chemoreceptor found in Solpugidae This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Malleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • All songs by Malleus Maleficarum, all lyrics by Mastema. (metal-archives.com)
  • Engineered and mixed by Malleus Maleficarum during autumn 2001. (metal-archives.com)
  • Mastered by Malleus Maleficarum on December 2001. (metal-archives.com)
  • For example, there is a long account in the Malleus Maleficarum of an attempted exorcism of a young Bohemian priest who thought himself demonically possessed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • According to the Malleus Maleficarum ( The Hammer of Witches ), a medieval treatise on the identification and punishment of witches, they may hurt you, your livestock, or property, offer aid to the saucy ex-girlfriend you ditched for your straight-laced wife, or eat your unbaptized children in a tasty soup. (dirtysexyhistory.com)
  • First published in 1487 by monks of the Dominican Order, Henreich Kramer and Jacob Springer, The Malleus Maleficarum was written to prove the existence of witches and to advise magistrates on how to convict them. (dirtysexyhistory.com)
  • The malleus or hammer is a hammer-shaped small bone or ossicle of the middle ear which connects with the incus and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The head of the malleus is the large protruding section, which attaches to the incus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The malleus receives vibrations from the tympanic membrane and transmits this to the incus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Niccolo Massa's Liber introductorius anatomiae described the malleus in slightly more detail and likened both it and the incus to little hammers terming them malleoli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incus and malleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A complete osteological and contextual assessment, which included the use of a SkyScan 1172 micro-CT scanner on the pathological incus that was recovered, indicated that the right incus and malleus had fused during early embryological development. (wiley.com)
  • Here, we report the discovery of a complete ossicular chain (malleus, incus, and stapes) of Paranthropus robustus as well as additional ear ossicles from Australopithecus africanus . (pnas.org)
  • The malleus in both early hominin taxa is clearly human-like in the proportions of the manubrium and corpus, whereas the incus and stapes resemble African and Asian great apes more closely. (pnas.org)
  • The evolutionary transformation of the malleus and incus, which once formed part of the lower jaw, represents a profound modification of both the feeding and auditory apparatuses and had important implications for the sensory ecology of early mammals ( 3 ), including primates ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • There are three bones located in the middle ear: the incus, the malleus and the stapes. (healthline.com)
  • Photograph of the three ossicles in the human ear: the malleus, the incus, and the stapes. (wikimedia.org)
  • descends nearly vertically behind and parallel to the manubrium of the malleus, and, bending medialward, ends in a rounded projection, the lenticular process, which is tipped with cartilage, and articulates with the head of the stapes. (bartleby.com)
  • the head of the malleus . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On its anterior surface is a deeply concavo-convex facet, which articulates with the head of the malleus. (bartleby.com)
  • The disease is caused by the Gram-negative nonmotile bacillus Burkholderia mallei , a close relative of Burkholderia pseudomallei--the causal agent of melioidosis in humans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The B. pseudomallei K96243 genome contains 11 predicted ATs, eight of which share homologs in the B. mallei ATCC 23344 genome. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review distils key findings from in silico , in vitro , and in vivo studies on the ATs of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei . (frontiersin.org)
  • To date, the best characterized of the predicted ATs of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei is BimA, a predicted trimeric AT mediating actin-based motility which varies in sequence and mode of action between Burkholderia species. (frontiersin.org)
  • Of the remaining eight predicted B. pseudomallei trimeric autotransporters, five of which are also present in B. mallei , two (BoaA and BoaB), have been implicated in bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • B. mallei is adapted to a narrower range of hosts than B. pseudomallei and is not considered able to persist for protracted periods in the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • We sequenced the 1.5-kb 16S rRNA gene of 56 B. pseudomallei and 23 B. mallei isolates selected to represent a wide range of temporal, geographic, and origin diversity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This report provides a basis for rapidly identifying and differentiating B. pseudomallei and B. mallei by molecular methods. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Mutations were introduced in the B. mallei capsular gene cluster and the corresponding mutants were examined for their reactivity with antibodies raised against Burkholderia pseudomallei surface polysaccharides by immunoblotting and ELISA. (nih.gov)
  • We evaluated the sensitivity and selectivity of these four media using 20 B. mallei , 20 B. pseudomallei, 20 Burkholderia spp. (ajtmh.org)
  • Ashdown's agar was the most sensitive medium for the isolation of B. pseudomallei , but it was unable to support growth of B. mallei. (ajtmh.org)
  • Of note, the B. mallei cannot persist in the environment outside its host (unlike B. pseudomallei -the agent of melioidosis). (centerforhealthsecurity.org)
  • Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei are two closely related species of highly virulent bacteria that can be difficult to detect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rapid, sensitive methods for identification of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are urgently needed in the interests of patient treatment and epidemiological surveillance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The assay permits differentiation of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei strains, and probit analysis showed a very low detection limit. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Timely recognition of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei is vital for appropriate therapy, since both pathogens cause rapidly progressive diseases and are resistant to several antibiotics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is thus vital to have fast, sensitive methods for the identification of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei , both for patient treatment and for epidemiological surveillance and forensic investigation in the event of their deliberate release. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B. mallei and B. pseudomallei must be handled in accordance with the Canadian Biosafety Standards and shipped in accordance with the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations. (publichealthontario.ca)
  • Suspected cultures of B. mallei or B. pseudomallei are forwarded to the National Microbiology Laboratory Monday to Thursday. (publichealthontario.ca)
  • B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are confirmed using real-time-PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method. (publichealthontario.ca)
  • Compared with B. pseudomallei isolates having typical bimA alleles, isolates that contain the B. mallei-like variation demonstrate increased persistence in phagocytic cells and increased virulence with rapid systemic dissemination and replication within multiple tissues, including the brain and spinal cord, in an experimental model. (edu.au)
  • Antimicrobial drug-selection markers for Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Genetic research into the select agents Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei is currently hampered by a paucity of approved antimicrobial drug-selection markers. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, the means by which B. pseudomallei and B. mallei adhere to cells are poorly defined. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The boaA gene product is shared by B. pseudomallei and B. mallei whereas BoaB appears to be a B. pseudomallei -specific adherence factor. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The genomic sequence of the B. mallei strain ATCC23344 has been published by TIGR [ 26 ] and is smaller (2 chromosomes of 3.5 and 2.3 Mbp) than that of B. pseudomallei K96243. (beds.ac.uk)
  • B. mallei ATCC23344 was found to specify a large number of mobile DNA elements that have contributed to extensive deletions and rearrangements relative to the genome of B. pseudomallei K96243. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The genomic sequence of several B. pseudomallei and B. mallei isolates are also publicly available through the NCBI genomic BLAST service ( http://0-www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/sutils/genom_table.cgi ), which provides a wealth of resources to study these organisms. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Molecular detection of B. mallei has always been troublesome because of its genetic similarity with Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis. (cdc.gov)
  • In vitro susceptibilities of 43 non-archived recent isolates of Burkholderia mallei to 12 antimicrobials were determined by disc diffusion technique. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Minimum evolution trees based on 23 VNTR loci of 10 Burkholderia mallei isolates from Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, and Haryana states, India, compared with reference sequences. (cdc.gov)
  • A) Comparison of Himachal Pradesh-Uttar Pradesh cluster isolates (blue circles) with 6 older B. mallei isolates from India. (cdc.gov)
  • B) Comparison of Himachal Pradesh-Uttar Pradesh cluster isolates (red branches) with 77 previously published B. mallei isolates, including the 6 others from India (blue branches). (cdc.gov)
  • Twenty-two of 23 B. mallei isolates showed 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and were designated 16S type 10, whereas the remaining isolate was designated type 11. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We demonstrated good resolution by PFGE together with clustering of some geographically related isolates, and confirmed previous observations that B. mallei is clonal as defined by MLST. (ajtmh.org)
  • Ribotyping of Burkholderia mallei isolates. (ajtmh.org)
  • The complete genome sequence of Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 provides insight into this highly infectious bacterium's pathogenicity and evolutionary history. (umd.edu)
  • A sucrose-resistant strain of B. mallei was constructed by deleting a major portion of the sacB gene of the wild type strain ATCC 23344 by gene replacement, and designated as strain 23344DeltasacB. (nih.gov)
  • The CD1 mice inoculated with a non-lethal dose of the ctpA mutant produced specific serum immunoglobulins IgG1 and IgG2a and were partially protected against challenge with wild type B. mallei ATCC 23344. (nih.gov)
  • Immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of a capsule on the surface of B. mallei ATCC 23344 (parental strain) but not on B. mallei DD3008 (capsule mutant) or B. thailandensis. (nih.gov)
  • Other names: B. mallei ATCC 23344, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344, Burkholderia mallei ATCC23344, Burkholderia mallei str. (string-db.org)
  • The malleus is a bone situated in the middle ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The malleus is one of three ossicles in the middle ear which transmit sound from the tympanic membrane (ear drum) to the inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malleus (Latin for "hammer") is a bone in the middle ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The site and the size of the perforation, whether or not it contacts the manubrium mallei , as well as the volume of the middle ear and of the mastoid are some of the factors that affect the level of the hearing loss (2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) coronal ultrafine (around 0.1 mm) reconstructions of the malleus revealed a small non-displaced isolated fracture of the malleus handle (Fig. A and B). On the left there was a continuous appearence of the middle ear ossicles. (jbsr.be)
  • In this study, the TTM, tympanic membrane, malleus in the middle ear and tensor veli palatini muscle (TVPM) were examined by whole-mount immunohistochemistry in tissue from Japanese subjects. (springer.com)
  • Variation in simple sequence repeats in key genes can provide a mechanism for generating antigenic variation that may account for the mammalian host's inability to mount a durable adaptive immune response to a B. mallei infection. (umd.edu)
  • Camels are also susceptible to B. mallei , as experimental infection has demonstrated ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Here we provide evidence for a B. mallei infection in 1 of the diseased dromedaries. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment with an oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing CPG motifs (CpG ODN 7909) was found to protect BALB/c mice from lung infection or death after aerosol challenge with Burkholderia mallei. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A SIMPLE method of reconstructing the tympanic membrane and the handle of the malleus as an integrated unit in cases where these structures have been destroyed by infection or by surgery, is presented in this preliminary report. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The head connects to the neck of malleus, and the bone continues as the handle of malleus, which connects to the tympanic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PORPs were divided into three groups: 1) PORPs with the lateral contact only with the tympanic membrane, 2) PORPs with lateral contact only to the malleus handle, and 3) PORPs with lateral contact with both the malleus handle and the tympanic membrane. (diva-portal.org)
  • Results: The PORPs with lateral contact only to the malleus handle performed better than the PORPs with lateral contact to the tympanic membrane only at 2 kHZ, but the best recovery was found in the group with contact both to the malleus handle and the tympanic membrane. (diva-portal.org)
  • Conclusion: The best sound transmission might be achieved by placing a PORP in contact with both the tympanic membrane and the handle of the malleus. (diva-portal.org)
  • On otomicroscopy, the right tympanic membrane showed an abnormal outline of the malleus handle. (jbsr.be)
  • We examined the following six surface sites: the inner surface of the tympanic membrane (TM), neck of the malleus, insertion of the TTM at the malleus, belly of the TTM, connection region between the TTM and TVPM, and belly of the TVPM (Fig. 1 a, b). (springer.com)
  • The manubrium mallei ( handle ) is connected by its lateral margin with the tympanic membrane. (bartleby.com)
  • However, the separation of incudomalleolar joint and rotation of the handle of malleus without malleolar fracture seems to be a rare type of ossicular injury. (ejao.org)
  • We report a case of facial palsy due to unusually dislocated handle of malleus after head trauma with reviews of the related literatures. (ejao.org)
  • The aim of the present invention to provide oligonucleotide primers to identify differentiating genome fragment WMA .mallei by polymerase chain reaction. (russianpatents.com)
  • Comparative sequence analyses identified a gene product in the published genome of B. mallei strain ATCC23344 (locus # BMAA0649) that resembles the well-characterized Yersinia enterocolitica autotransporter adhesin YadA. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The need for research aimed at genotyping of strains .mallei, the persistence of the threat of a disaster or biological situations, due to the occurrence of man-made disasters, natural disasters and potential terrorist attacks with the use of this agent. (russianpatents.com)
  • The assay was highly specific for B. mallei as it did not cross-react with other bacterial strains used in the study. (cdc.gov)
  • The API 20 NE-test identified the colonies as B. mallei because the same API ID number (1140504) occurred as in the previously isolated Dubai 7 strain ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The LAMP assay could detect as low as 1 pg of B. mallei genomic DNA and 5.5 × 10 3 CFU/ml of B. mallei in spiked human blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Ossiculoplasty on human temporal bones was performed in the presence of a malleus fracture. (diva-portal.org)
  • High resolution CT diagnosis of isolated fracture of the malleus handle. (jbsr.be)
  • During surgery, the isolated fracture of the right malleus handle was visualised and an ossiculoplasty was performed using a hydroxylapatite bone cement (OtoMimix®, Biomet, Jacksonville, Florida) (Fig. C). Postoperatively, average pure-tone audiometry of air condition improved to 30 dB, and maximum air-bone gap improved to 35 dB at 500 Hz. (jbsr.be)
  • Volders D, Somers T, Casselman J. High resolution CT diagnosis of isolated fracture of the malleus handle. (jbsr.be)
  • From the Latin malleus, a hammer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Malleus (Fig. 916), so named from its fancied resemblance to a hammer, consists of a head, neck, and three processes, viz. (bartleby.com)
  • mallei , the phytopathogenic species, the molecular basis for antibiotic resistance in the genus, and cell-to-cell communication and biofilm formation of members of the genus as a story of multilingually talented bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since both the early hominin species share this human-like malleus , the anatomical changes in this bone must have occurred very early in our evolutionary history. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of the techniques currently receiving considerable attention involves not lifting the remaining of eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft underneath in order to repair the eardrum correctly in its original position, as well as minimizing graft lateralization leading to progression of hearing rehabilitation. (ac.ir)
  • Conclusion: A higher hearing threshold and also higher ABG gain can be achieved by not lifting the remaining eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft undereath it, especially at lower frequencies. (ac.ir)
  • CT image of malleus Auditory ossicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone terminology Evolution of mammalian auditory ossicles Ligaments of malleus Terms for anatomical location hednk-023-Embryo Images at University of North Carolina Mitchell, Richard L. Drake, Wayne Vogl, Adam W. M. (2005). (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the data presented in the GenBank NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information, USA), primers were selected, marked BmVAT1-Ch1s/BmVAT1-Ch1as, complementary differentiating fragment WMA for intraspecific typing .mallei. (russianpatents.com)
  • We studied the involvement of CtpA on growth, cell morphology, persistence, and pathogenicity of B. mallei. (nih.gov)
  • We identified an insertion sequence (IS 407 A) at one end of the capsule gene cluster and demonstrated that it was functional in B. mallei. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that this subset has a B. mallei-like sequence variation of the actin-based motility gene, bimA. (edu.au)
  • The gene encoding this B. mallei protein, designated boaA , was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to significantly increase adherence to human epithelial cell lines, specifically HEp2 (laryngeal cells) and A549 (type II pneumocytes), as well as to cultures of normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Development of a real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Burkholderia mallei. (cdc.gov)
  • In present investigation, a set of six B. mallei-specific primers were designed and a simple, rapid, specific and sensitive real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for detection of B. mallei. (cdc.gov)
  • We compared the effects of tympanoplasty with and without malleus lifting on hearing loss in patients with chronic otitis media. (ac.ir)
  • Between the neck and handle of the malleus, lateral and anterior processes emerge from the bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of B. mallei pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Most high-dose dribble perforation malleus. (rusf.ru)
  • The putative carboxy-terminal processing protease (CtpA) of B. mallei is a member of a novel family of endoproteases involved in the maturation of proteins destined for the cell envelope. (nih.gov)
  • Ossiculoplasty with malleus footplate assembly (MFA) can be an excellent option in the above situations. (bvsalud.org)
  • A deep phylogenetic origin is proposed for the derived malleus morphology, and this may represent one of the earliest human-like features to appear in the fossil record. (pnas.org)
  • SUBSTANCE: invention refers to biotechnology and concerns oligonucleotide primers for B.mallei genetic typing. (russianpatents.com)