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  • progenitor
  • The proteoglycan NG2 is complexed with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by the PDZ glutamate receptor interaction protein (GRIP) in glial progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • These "tissue-culture artifacts" include overgrowth of cells not characteristic of the original population of cultured cells (eg, overgrowth of fibroblasts in cultures that were originally primarily epithelial cells), selection for a small population of variant cells with continued passage in vitro, or appearance of cells with an abnormal chromosomal number or structure (karyotype). (nih.gov)
  • 27 Such cell lines may also be generated by transfection of the telomerase gene into cells to maintain chromosomal length. (nih.gov)
  • Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains many copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal region, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • CML is a cancer initiated by a mutant gene called BCR-ABL in blood forming stem cells that leads to an expansion of white blood cells and their precursors. (labspaces.net)
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia develops when a gene mutates and causes an enzyme to become hyperactive, causing blood-forming stem cells in the bone marrow to grow rapidly into abnormal cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Members of this gene family have a high affinity for folic acid and for several reduced folic acid derivatives, and mediate delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the interior of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As they are stimulated to become plasma cells, B cells refashion parts of their genome in efforts to create a new gene that encodes a functional antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these gene alterations are successful in coding for a functional antibody (termed Ig for immunoglobulin), the maturing B cells and to a greater extent their plasma cell descendants make and secrete an intact antibody, initially IgM but after class switch recombinations, either IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the cited gene changes can go awry in plasma cells by, for example, placing a gene that ordinarily controls cell growth adjacent to the normally highly active antibody gene promotor thereby creating a cancer-causing oncogene or, more commonly, by forming extra chromosomes (see trisomy) or chromosomes that have deleted or repetitive sections, any of which such changes may promote malignancy in more complex and less well understood ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning of the human homologue of the metastasis-associated rat C4.4A". Gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus, and such an event may also result in the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Using biopsies of high-grade serous ovarian cancer metastases that ranged from minimal to extensive disease, we show how nonmalignant cell densities and cytokine networks evolve with disease progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • pathways
  • Recently, however, Hahn and colleagues 28 showed that ectopic expression of the human telomerase catalytic subunit (human telomerase reverse transcriptase [hTERT]) in combination with the oncogenes h- ras and SV40 virus large-T antigen can induce tumorigenic conversion in normal human epithelial and fibroblast cells, suggesting that disruption of the intracellular pathways regulated by these gene products is sufficient to produce a malignant cell. (nih.gov)
  • antibody
  • When there is a malignant clone, there is usually overproduction of a single antibody, resulting in a "spike" on the normal distribution (sharp peak on the graph), which is called an M spike (or monoclonal spike). (wikipedia.org)
  • The B cells in the body have two important phenotypes (functional forms) -- the antibody secreting, terminally differentiated (that is, they cannot divide further) plasma cells, and the memory and the naive cells-both of which retain their proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Over the past 60 years, much scientific effort has gone into research aimed at identifying the phenotypic characteristics of in vitro-transformed cells that correlate with the growth of a cancer in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Shurin, M. R. Loss of new chemokine CXCL14 in tumor tissue is associated with low infiltration by dendritic cells (DC), while restoration of human CXCL14 expression in tumor cells causes attraction of DC both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • It did not take her long to make an impact, as almost immediately after joining she made her largest discovery involving a method of cloning mammalian cancer cells in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her research targeted isolated mammalian cells in vitro and finding ways to trigger malignant transformations and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The negative immune regulatory role of TIRC7 is furthermore supported by the fact that TIRC7 knock out mice exhibits an increased T and B cell response in the presence of various stimuli in vitro and in vivo exhibiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocytes
  • Plasma cells develop from B lymphocytes which are stimulated to undergo this maturational development by T lymphocytes during the latter cells' processing of these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two isoforms are: long isoform a, also named OC116 short isoform b, also named TIRC7 (N-terminus truncated, lacks amino acid residues 1-216 of the long isoform) TIRC7 is expressed in T lymphocytes and is essential for normal T cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During immune activation, TIRC7 is co-localized with the T cell receptor and CTLA4 within the immune synapse of human T cells At the protein and mRNA level, its expression is induced in lymphocytes in synovial tissues obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis or during rejection of solid organ transplants and bone marrow transplantation as well as in brain tissues obtained from patients with multiple sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignancy
  • PubMed ID : 15843547 Starnes T, Rasila KK, Robertson MJ, Brahmi Z, Dahl R, Christopherson K, Hromas R. The chemokine CXCL14 (BRAK) stimulates activated NK cell migration: implications for the downregulation of CXCL14 in malignancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • The process is characterized by changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Most other cells cannot divide indefinitely as after a few cycles of cell division the cells stop expressing an enzyme telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this enzyme in "youthful" cells replaces these lost bits (nucleotides) of DNA, thus making almost unlimited cycles of cell division possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Similar to the Rb negative cells, some of the Rb positive cells express proteins associated with neural stem cells (CD133, nestin, sox2) while other Rb positive cells express proteins associated with differentiated neural cells (GFAP, NSE, synaptophysin). (arvojournals.org)
  • Researchers at Mayo Clinic have identified an interaction among proteins that allows cancer cells to grow and metastasize. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Scientists identify two signaling proteins in cancer cells that make them resistant to chemotherapy, and show that blocking the proteins along with chemotherapy eliminate human leukemia in mouse models. (medicalxpress.com)
  • dendritic cells
  • Immune response and long-term clinical outcome in advanced melanoma patients vaccinated with tumor-mRNA-transfected dendritic cells. (uio.no)
  • It is also a potent chemoattractant and activator of dendritic cells, is implicated in homing of these cells, and can stimulate the migration of activated NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • BRAK/CXCL14 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and a chemotactic factor for immature dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presence
  • Presence of malignant cells in CSF confirmed the diagnosis. (springer.com)
  • Principal component analysis was able to distinguish between cells incubated in the absence or presence of the drug, even in the case of resistant clones. (rsc.org)
  • This chemokine is chemotactic for monocytes and can activate these cells in the presence of an inflammatory mediator called prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2). (wikipedia.org)
  • The induction of TIRC7 in IL-10 secreting T regulatory cells and the prevention of colitis in the presence of TIRC7 positive T regulatory cells supports the inhibitory signals induced via TIRC7 pathway during immune activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • It s important to note," says Blelloch, "that the stem cells from the cloned melanoma were incorporated into most, if not all, tissues of adult mice, showing that they can develop into normal, healthy cells," such as those for skin pigmentation, immunity, and connective tissue. (innovations-report.com)
  • Some of the characteristics listed in Table 9-1 may also be observed in rapidly proliferating tissues or stem cell populations of undifferentiated phenotypes. (nih.gov)
  • It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, UCK2 has been detected mostly in cancerous cells and healthy placental tissue.The selective expression in target tissues has resulted in the identification of UCK2 as a target in anti-cancer therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division is a physiological process that occurs in almost all tissues and under a variety of circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • TIRC7 is a membrane protein induced after immune activation on the cell surface of certain peripheral human T and B cells as well as monocytes and IL-10 expressing regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recently identified cell surface ligand to TIRC7 is the non-polymorphic alpha 2 domain (HLA-DRα2) of HLA DR protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • It also acts as a cell surface receptor, in particular for laminin, and is involved in several pathogenic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also the receptor by which Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) enters host cells and small molecule inhibitors of EphA2 have shown some ability to block KSHV entry into human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • A British scientist who won this year's Nobel prize for medicine has predicted that human clones will be allowed and accepted within 50 years. (medindia.net)
  • Prior to her discovery, tissue cultures had to be composed of multiple and various human body cells in order for them to survive and grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • It represents an integral membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expressed by human malignant melanoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon lymphocyte activation TIRC7 is upregulated to engage HLA-DRα2 and induce apoptotic signals in human CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • It has been observed that the level of RPSA transcript is higher in colon carcinoma tissue and lung cancer cell lines than their normal counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a disorder of bone marrow cells resulting in shortened life of red blood cells, which is also a result of clonal expansion, i.e., all the altered cells are originally derived from a single cell, which also somewhat compromises the functioning of other "normal" bone marrow cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, the effects of drugs on cells produce both chemical and morphological changes, the latter could affect the spectra of cells incubated with drugs. (rsc.org)
  • stem cell
  • Despite the emergence of new therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, CML and other leukemias remain problematic because some cancer stem cells avoid destruction and eventually regenerate themselves, a stem cell process known as self-renewal that can result in a return and spread (metastasis) of the disease. (labspaces.net)
  • People normally think about DNA instability in cancer, but in this case, it's how the RNA is edited by enzymes that really matters in terms of cancer stem cell generation and resistance to conventional therapy. (labspaces.net)
  • Despite tremendous advances in BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapies, the majority of patients relapse if therapy is discontinued, in part as a result of dormant cancer stem cell resistance. (labspaces.net)
  • Principal investigator of the study is Catriona H. M. Jamieson, MD, PhD , associate professor of medicine in the Division of Hematology-Oncology and director of stem cell research at the UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center . (ucsd.edu)
  • Remissions may be brought about with steroids, chemotherapy, thalidomide or lenalidomide, and stem cell transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune
  • Immune escape of cancer cells with beta2-microglobulin loss over the course of metastatic melanoma. (uio.no)
  • Plasma cells are key effector elements of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expansion of a particular clone of immune B cells is usually interpreted by clinicians as evidence of unrestricted cell growth, the hallmark of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further evidence for the inhibitory role of TIRC7 during the course of immune response is that prevention of colitis was achievable by a transfer of TIRC7 positive cells into CD45RO mice prior to induction of colitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • A single malignant clone of CTVT cells has colonized dogs worldwide, representing the oldest known malignant cell line in continuous propagation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single cells separated out required the support of other cells in order to function and proliferate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sanford developed micropipettes where single cells could be picked up and isolated from under the microscope and placed in a detailed microenvironment, where diffusion of cellular products was restricted to inside a small closed culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • When ultimately many cells are produced by a single cell, clonal expansion is said to have taken place. (wikipedia.org)
  • latter
  • The latter would confirm that the spectral differences between the so-called resistant clonal cells prior to and after adding a drug might reside on those more or less sensitive cells that have been able to remain alive when they were collected to be studied with S-FTIR or Raman microspectroscopies. (rsc.org)
  • genetic
  • This allowed the advancement of research on metabolic and genetic features of the clone cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic material, in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), continues to shorten with each cell division, and cells eventually stop dividing when they sense that their DNA is critically shortened. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • A significant induced memory cell subset and reduction of CTLA4 expression observed in TIRC7 knock out mice. (wikipedia.org)