• The medicinal value of Cinchona bark was first discovered in Loxa (now Loja, Ecuador) in the seventeenth century by Jesuit monks, and soon exports of different varieties of Cinchona pubescens Vahl (red bark) from South America to Europe were reaching half a million kilograms bark per year ( Roersch van der Hoogte and Pieters, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • There, quinine bark was used by the Jesuits very early in its history and due to the influence of the Company of Jesus, the newly named 'Jesuit's powder' became known all over Europe. (zooscape.com)
  • Early New World medicines uncovered included guaiacum from the West Indies (for coughs, rheumatism and a wide variety of other uses), sassafras from Florida, copaiba from Brazil, Peru balsam and, most famously, cinchona bark from Peru, also called "Jesuit's bark" in honor of its discoverer, which became the first effective treatment for malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name of the genus is due to Linnaeus , who named the tree in 1742 after a Countess of Chinchon, the wife of a viceroy of Peru, who according to legend, was cured by the medicinal properties of the bark after introduction to this source by natives. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The medicinally active bark , which is stripped from the tree, dried and powdered, includes other alkaloids that are closely related to quinine but react differently in treating malaria. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Amari (plural of amaro ) are traditional Italian bitter aperitivo or digestivo liqueurs and Ferro China are a distinctive sub-category of amari containing iron ammonium citrate (hence "ferro") and cinchona bark (china). (diffordsguide.com)
  • Aside from being great for malaria, quinine is also horribly bitter, so from the very beginning of its usage, folks were mixing it with other things, like sugar or wine, to make it more palatable. (rocktreesky.com)
  • An estimated 216 million people contracted malaria in 2010 in 106 countries and 655,000 died from it, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), although the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) estimates malaria deaths at 1.2 million that year. (innovations-report.com)
  • Without protection, the CAF projected up to 27 malaria cases a month, and several deaths during the deployment. (legionmagazine.com)
  • Somalia veterans say they were given an oral briefing on malaria and mefloquine and its side-effects, but were not told to stop taking it if they had bad nightmares or other psychological effects, and were not screened for contraindication. (legionmagazine.com)
  • The results are significant in light of an estimated $9.7 billion gap between funds available and funds needed for malaria programs worldwide over the next three years, according to the international partnership Roll Back Malaria, a global partnership linked to the United Nations that is coordinating a plan among 500 member nations and organizations to eliminate the disease worldwide. (innovations-report.com)
  • 1998 Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM) launched by WHO, UNICEF, UNDP and World Bank with goal of halving malaria incidence and mortality by 2010. (healthcanal.com)
  • Cinchona bark isn't a regular grocery store item, so chances are you're going to have to order online, but it doesn't take much cinchona to make a batch, so you can be set for a while with a decent bag of the stuff (FYI, in Danish this is kinabark, if you're looking online for it). (rocktreesky.com)
  • Some human CYPs are able to breakdown quinine by hydroxylation of the molecule to a less toxic form, 3-hydroxyquinine. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Among those resurgences, 91 percent - or 68 out of the 75 - were caused at least in part by weakened malaria control programs, with 39 of the 68 tied to funding constraints, according to the research led by the Clinton Health Access Initiative, in conjunction with the UCSF Global Health Group and the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute. (innovations-report.com)
  • But when that commitment ended, malaria resurged to a peak of 6 million cases by 1976. (innovations-report.com)
  • Malaria control programs have been shown to be extremely successful in reducing the number of cases of malaria to very low levels, but history demonstrates that gains can be lost rapidly if financial and political support is not sustained," said lead author Justin Cohen, PhD, MPH of the Clinton Health Access Initiative. (innovations-report.com)
  • Quinine bark was first advertised for sale in England in 1658, and was made official in the British Pharmacopoeia in 1677. (zooscape.com)
  • The study, published in the April 24 issue of the open-access Malaria Journal, analyzed the causes of 75 documented episodes of malaria resurgence throughout the world over the past 80 years, both in countries that were close to eliminating the disease and those with higher transmission rates that were attempting to control it. (innovations-report.com)
  • 2007 World Malaria Forum convenes in Seattle, hosted by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. (healthcanal.com)
  • Funding cuts for malaria control are the single most common reason for the resurgence of the deadly disease, according to a new study that has linked overall weakened malaria control programs to the majority of global resurgences since 1930. (innovations-report.com)
  • It is imperative that we not lose the gains that these countries have achieved in malaria control. (innovations-report.com)
  • Finding ways to ensure continued funding for malaria control today will be crucial to building on the gains of the past decade. (innovations-report.com)
  • The study also categorized malaria resurgence according to whether it was related to increased intensity of malaria transmission due to population movement or weather changes, as well as technical obstacles such as drug and insecticide resistance. (innovations-report.com)
  • Thus, Ferro China contains both a form of iron more easily absorbed by the body (Ferric Ammonium Citrate), and quinine so the liqueur helped alleviate the iron anaemia and malaria in the population of Rome. (diffordsguide.com)
  • Included in that gap is the decision by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to postpone the majority of its malaria-based funding for new grants through 2013. (innovations-report.com)
  • As recently as 2009, the Global Fund was providing roughly half of the $2 billion in development assistance for malaria. (innovations-report.com)
  • 2002 The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is established and is led by UCSF's Sir Richard Feachem. (healthcanal.com)
  • The legend, perhaps anecdotal, says that the first European ever to be cured from malaria fever was the wife of the Spanish Viceroy, the countess of Chinchon. (newworldencyclopedia.org)