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  • inhibits
  • In the present study, we demonstrate that SA efficiently inhibits the hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1α in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in various human cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • d , l -Sulforaphane (SFN), a synthetic analogue of cruciferous vegetable-derived l -isomer, inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer cells in culture and in vivo and retards cancer development in a transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previous studies, including those from our laboratory, have revealed that phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a constituent of many edible cruciferous vegetables, not only affords significant protection against chemically induced cancer in animal models but also inhibits growth of cancer cells in culture and in vivo by causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This protein controls cell cycle progression and proneural genes expression by acting as a transcription coregulator that enhances or inhibits the activity of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutant cells segregate their unreplicated DNA, which is lethal, and fail to activate the MEC1-DNA M-phase checkpoint, which usually inhibits cell cycle progression if DNA has not been replicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian
  • Mammalian cells have established highly elaborate surveillance systems to detect DNA damages and other forms of genotoxic stress, which is essential to maintain the genomic integrity and, hence, cellular viability. (axonmedchem.com)
  • discovered a third DNA polymerase activity in mammalian cells that was called polymerase delta (δ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Activation of iNKT cells can protect against multiple diseases in mice but clinical trials in humans have had limited impact. (jove.com)
  • In humans, Down syndrome appears in children carrying in their cells one extra copy of chromosome 21, as a result of a defect in chromosome segregation during meiosis in one of the progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • M-phase inducer phosphatase 1 also known as dual specificity phosphatase Cdc25A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the cell division cycle 25 homolog A (CDC25A) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein BTG2 also known as BTG family member 2 or NGF-inducible anti-proliferative protein PC3 or NGF-inducible protein TIS21, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BTG2 gene (B-cell translocation gene 2) and in other mammals by the homologous Btg2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Anticancer drug therapy activates both molecular cell death and autophagy pathways.Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy does not prevent ATG5-dependent mitotic catastrophe, but shifts the balance to an early caspase-dependent cell death.Our data suggest a dual role for ATG5 in response to drug-induced DNA damage, where it acts in two signalling pathways in two distinct cellular compartments, the cytosol and the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy does not prevent ATG5-dependent mitotic catastrophe, but shifts the balance to an early caspase-dependent cell death. (nih.gov)
  • Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy leads to a caspase-dependent cell death. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that SFN treatment causes transcriptional repression of AR and inhibition of its nuclear localization in human prostate cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The PEITC-mediated inhibition of PC-3 cell migration was statistically significantly attenuated by ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Impaired carcinogen activation due to inhibition of cytochrome P 450-dependent monooxygenases and/or increased detoxification of the carcinogenic intermediates due to induction of phase 2 enzymes (e.g., glutathione transferases) are considered important mechanisms for PEITC-mediated inhibition of chemically induced cancers in animal models (reviewed in ref. 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibition prevents experimental cerebral malaria by precluding CXCR3 expression on T cells. (anoxia.info)
  • Inhibition or loss of MDC1 protein through studies with siRNA on human cells or knockout studies in mice have shown several defects at both the cellular and organismal level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pro-differentiative action of BTG2 appears to be consequent not only to inhibition of cell cycle progression but also to a BTG2-dependent activation of proneural genes in neural progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that overexpression of Cdc6p does not induce re-replication in cognate cells, probably due to inhibition through CDK that resets the cell cycle clock to G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • During the early postnatal development of the cerebellum, Btg2 is mainly required to control the migration and differentiation of the precursor cells of cerebellar granule neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Compared to the eukaryotic cell cycle, the prokaryotic cell cycle (known as binary fission) is relatively simple and quick: the chromosome replicates from the origin of replication, a new membrane is assembled, and the cell wall forms a septum which divides the cell into two. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle checkpoints play an important role in the control system by sensing defects that occur during essential processes such as DNA replication or chromosome segregation, and inducing a cell cycle arrest in response until the defects are repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples include: In cancer cells, aneuploidy is a frequent event, indicating that these cells present a defect in the machinery involved in chromosome segregation, as well as in the mechanism ensuring that segregation is correctly performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only this pattern of attachment will ensure that each daughter cell receives one copy of the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism responsible for the correct distribution of sister chromatids during cell division is named chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure that chromosome segregation takes place correctly, cells have developed a precise and complex mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first place, cells must coordinate centrosome duplication with DNA replication, and a failure in this coordination will generate monopolar or multipolar mitotic spindles, which generally will produce abnormal chromosome segregation, because in this case, chromosome distribution will not take place in a balanced way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, if by chance a microtubule exploring the center of the cell encounters a kinetochore, it may happen that the kinetochore will capture it, so that the chromosome will become attached to the spindle via the kinetochore of one of its sister chromatids. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Gemcitabine progresses through a similar mechanism, causing cells in the S-phase to disrepair DNA damage caused by the radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The induction of phase 2 carcinogen-inactivating enzymes is an important mechanism in the prevention of chemically induced cancers by SFN ( 5 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The MDC1 gene encodes the MDC1 nuclear protein which is part of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, the mechanism through which eukaryotic cells respond to damaged DNA, specifically DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) that are caused by ionizing radiation or chemical clastogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Meiosis is a specialized cell division that ensures reduction of genomic content by half and DNA exchange between homologous chromosomes via crossovers (COs) prior to gamete formation. (plantcell.org)
  • During the mitotic phase, the chromosomes separate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to preserve the cell's identity and proper function, it is necessary to maintain the appropriate number of chromosomes after each cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • An error in generating daughter cells with fewer or greater number of chromosomes than expected (a situation termed aneuploidy), may lead in best case to cell death, or alternatively it may generate catastrophic phenotypic results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules (MTs) are long proteic filaments, with asymmetric extremities: one end termed "minus" (-) end, relatively stable and close to the centrosome, and an end termed "plus" (+) end, with alternating phases of growth and retraction, exploring the center of the cell searching the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • and DN iNKT cells can differentially promote and regulate the induction of Ab and T cell responses by B cells. (jove.com)
  • DNA repair and G2-phase cell cycle checkpoint responses are involved in the manifestation of hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS). (jove.com)
  • In normal cells, checkpoint responses are a critical safeguard to prevent tumorigenesis promoted by genetic instability. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Recent studies, including those from our laboratory, have documented novel cellular responses to SFN exposure in cultured human cancer cells ( 13 - 27 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The proteasomal degradation pathway is essential for many cellular processes, including the cell cycle, the regulation of gene expression, and responses to oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • This would in fact explain the ability of HTLV-I transformed cells to proliferate in vivo in the absence of most viral gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Jurkat T cells either overexpressing ATG5 following lentiviral gene transfer or treated with etoposide were cultured in the presence and absence of the indicated pharmacological inhibitors for the indicated times to block autophagy and caspase activity. (nih.gov)
  • DNA fiber fluorography in DT40 cells lacking a specific gene allows one to elucidate the function of this gene product in DNA replication and genome stability. (jove.com)
  • The POLD1 gene promoter is regulated via the cell cycle machinery and mRNA expression of POLD1 reaches a peak in late G1/S phase during DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is partly because the CDC6 gene is only transcribed during G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene coding for the Dbf4 or ASK protein is regulated during the different phases of cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • Disruption of the MDC1-NBS1 interaction results in failure of NBS1 accumulation at DNA double-strand breaks and impairment of intra-S checkpoint activation. (pnas.org)
  • Salternamide A was identified for the first time as an inhibitor of HIF-1α accumulation under hypoxic conditions in cancer cells (Figure 6). (nih.gov)
  • flavonoids that, on accumulation (ununiformly) along inner surface of mesophyll cell, restrain (partially) UV entry into cells thereby conferring UV acclimation under high intensity UV radiation in plants. (springer.com)
  • To further understand how cells cope with the accumulation of nicks during DNA replication, we utilized cdc9-1 in a genome-wide synthetic lethality screen, which identified RAD59 as a strong negative interactor. (jove.com)
  • Together, these results suggest that ATV can modulate tregs in peripheral tissue and favor their accumulation in the brain, where they can exert neuroprotective actions maybe by the reduction of glial cell activation. (anoxia.info)
  • Thus, the regulation of Cdc6p is tightly correlated to the activity of Cdk2 and since Cdk2-activity is oscillating once per cell cycle, the accumulation and degradation of Cdc6p also oscillates. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • We report here that a pol30-K107 mutation alleviated cell cycle delay in cdc9 mutants, consistent with the idea that the modification of PCNA at K107 affects the rate of DNA synthesis at replication forks. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore, the dual-labeling approach allows for quantitative analysis of parameters that influence DNA synthesis during the S-phase, i.e. replication structures such as ongoing and stalled forks, replication origin density as well as fork terminations. (jove.com)
  • The first phase within interphase, from the end of the previous M phase until the beginning of DNA synthesis, is called G1 (G indicating gap). (wikipedia.org)
  • S phase (synthesis phase) is the part of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, occurring between G1 phase and G2 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooper, S. and Helmstetter, C. E. 1968 DNA synthesis during the division cycle of rapidly growing Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal Transduction
  • the outer layer of epidermal cell to the genome, fluencing UV radiation takes recourse to the process of signal transduction either by UV induced damaged DNA or by wavelength specific photoreceptors. (springer.com)
  • transcriptional
  • By artificially slowing cleavage cycles in zebrafish embryos, I demonstrate that increases in transcriptional activity are independent of cell cycle elongation and embryo age. (upenn.edu)
  • We now show that SFN treatment causes transcriptional repression of androgen receptor (AR) in LNCaP and C4-2 human prostate cancer cells at pharmacologic concentrations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • L-SFN was shown to cause transcriptional induction of phase 2 enzymes in prostate cancer cells ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • pathway
  • This pathway contains 2 positive feedback loops, allowing for rapid, unidirectional movement into S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this pathway is stimulated by the upstream binding of growth factors (GF), either from within the cell itself or from neighboring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • progresses
  • As the cell progresses through G1, depending on internal and external conditions, it can either delay G1, enter a quiescent state known as G0, or proceed past the restriction point. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclins
  • Clb5 and Clb6 are B-type, S-phase cyclins in yeast that assist in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clb5 and Clb6 levels rise during G1 (earlier than other B-type cyclins) and stay high throughout S and M phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In double mutants for Clb5 and Clb6, the onset of S-phase (rather than the length) is significantly delayed, but will eventually occur as a side result of the buildup of other mitotic cyclins (Clb1-4). (wikipedia.org)
  • division
  • cell division control. (bioportfolio.com)
  • TgCep250 is dynamically processed through the division cycle and essential for structural integrity of the Toxoplasma centrosome. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To achieve this quickly, embryos employ specialized cell cycles called cleavages that consist of continuous rounds of DNA replication and division. (upenn.edu)
  • The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B period extends from the end of cell division to the beginning of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interphase is a series of changes that takes place in a newly formed cell and its nucleus, before it becomes capable of division again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, when the cell division process will end, each daughter cell will receive a complete set of organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, when the two daughter cells separate at the end of the division process, each one will receive a complete set of chromatids. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of studies in vivo have shown that BTG2 expression is associated with the neurogenic asymmetric division in neural progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc6, or cell division cycle 6, is a protein in eukaryotic cells that is studied in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the downregulation of p27, Cdk4 would be uninhibited and constitutively active, resulting in the uncontrolled progression through the G1/S checkpoint, eventually leading to the excessive cell growth and division observed in cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It works by interference with the normal function of microtubules during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • On the onset of the S phase, Cdc6p gets phosphorylated by the Cdc28-Clb5-Clb6 complex (Cdk2) and consequently becoming inactivated. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Invariant NK T (iNKT) cells can provide help for B cell activation and Ab production. (jove.com)
  • Because B cells are also capable of cytokine production, Ag presentation, and T cell activation, we hypothesized that iNKT cells will also influence these activities. (jove.com)
  • HRS was expressed solely in MSH2+ cells and was associated with efficient activation of the early G2-phase cell cycle checkpoint. (jove.com)
  • Regulatory T cells (tregs) inhibit the activation of the immune response which could down-regulate the systemic and focal activation observed during ischemic stroke. (anoxia.info)
  • Moreover, there was a reduction of glial cell activation, which correlated with decreased circulating tregs. (anoxia.info)
  • Initial assessment in 10 melanoma cell lines revealed that TMZ resistance correlated with MGMT expression (r = 0.79, p = 0.009), and in MGMT-proficient cell lines, with phospho-IGF-1R (r = 0.81, p = 0.038), suggesting that TMZ resistance associates with IGF-1R activation. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Activation of each phase is dependent on the proper progression and completion of the previous one. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, Clb5 and Clb6 are engaged in a positive feedback loop to promote their own activation during this period of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Cdc6p overexpression in primary cells may promote DNA hyperreplication and induce a senescence response similar to that caused by oncogene activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Additionally, CD4(+) iNKT cells induced expansions of cells with phenotypes of regulatory B cells. (jove.com)
  • CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have diverse immune stimulatory/regulatory activities through their ability to release cytokines and to kill or transactivate other cells. (jove.com)
  • Atorvastatin modulates regulatory t cells and attenuates cerebral damage in a model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (anoxia.info)
  • The IL-2/anti-IL-2 complex attenuates cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury through expansion of regulatory T cells. (anoxia.info)
  • Regulatory T cells ameliorate tissue plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage after stroke. (anoxia.info)
  • Clb5 and Clb6 are part of a regulatory network that initiates DNA replication during S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • activates
  • Anticancer drug therapy activates both molecular cell death and autophagy pathways. (nih.gov)
  • overexpression
  • Induction of G2- or M-phase arrest was seen as a consequence of ATG5 overexpression independent of treatment with 3-MA, as normal Jurkat T cells exhibited no G2/M arrest following 3-MA treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, induction of autophagy by Beclin 1 overexpression or starvation failed to produce cell cycle arrest (Supplementary Fig. S4). (nih.gov)
  • large multinucleated cells and cells with abnormal nuclei were seen as a consequence of ATG5 overexpression independent of 3-MA. (nih.gov)
  • Neither induction of autophagy by Beclin 1 overexpression nor starvation resulted in such abnormal cells (Supplementary Fig. S4). (nih.gov)
  • Cancer
  • is a potent cytotoxic agent against a variety of human cancer cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • Proposed signaling pathways underlying the effects of SA on the suppression of HIF-1α and the induction of cell death in human colorectal cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • The anti-proliferative activity of SA in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells was also associated with G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptotic/autophagic cell deaths. (nih.gov)
  • The PEITC treatment reduced migration by PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, which correlated with inactivation of Akt and suppression of VEGF, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Angiogenesis in tumors permits the growth and invasiveness of cancer cells leading to metastasis to distant organs ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the phase 2 PALOMA-1 trial reported at the April 2014 annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, the addition of palbociclib to letrozole was shown to significantly slow the progression of advanced cancer (median progression-free survival increased from 10.2 months to 20.2 months), but was not shown to have a statistically significant effect on increasing patients' overall survival times. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is recommended in NICE guidance of June 2001 that it should be used for nonsmall cell lung cancer in patients unsuitable for curative treatment, and in first-line and second-line treatment of ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Moreover, when directly overexpressed in vivo in neural progenitor cells, BTG2 induces their differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • Here, we combine RNAi screening and in vitro evolution approaches to demonstrate that cytokinesis failure activates the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway in cultured cells, as well as in naturally occurring tetraploid cells in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Hippo pathway key to ploidy checkpoint. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins in the MAPK/NF-κB pathway were upregulated in LMP1-expressing NK-92 cells compared with the negative control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, activation of p16 through the ROS pathway, DNA damage, or senescence leads to the buildup of p16 in tissues and is implicated in aging of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a mutation in a caretaker gene coding for a DNA repair pathway that leads to the inability to properly repair DNA damage could allow uncontrolled cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early signaling proteins in the checkpoint pathway are members of a family of phosphotidylinositol 3-kinases, rad3 in yeast and ATR in vertebrates, that are believed to localize to sites of DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The underlying mechanism appears to be mediated by SphK1 induced upregulation of select gene transcription programs such as that of CBP/p300 and PCAF, two histone acetyl transferases (HAT), and the down regulation of cell cycle dependent kinase inhibitor genes such as p27kip1 and p21cip1. (docplayer.net)
  • Once in the nucleus, E2F1 promotes the transcription of target genes that are essential for transition from G1 to S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inactivation of caretaker genes is environmentally equivalent to exposing the cell to mutagens incessantly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations must occur in the remaining normal caretaker allele in addition to both alleles of gatekeeper genes within that cell for the said cell to turn to neoplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases, gatekeeper genes encode a system of checks and balances that monitor cell division and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • When tissue damage occurs, for example, products of gatekeeper genes ensure that balance of cell growth over cellular death remains in check. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each cell type has only one, or at least only very few, gatekeeper genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to cells with normal repair capability, CSA and CSB deficient cells are unable to preferentially repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers induced by the action of ultraviolet (UV) light on the template strand of actively transcribed genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • Only one HDAC inhibitor, suberonylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), marketed as Zolinza (vorinostat) has been approved by US Foods and Drugs Administration (FDA) for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/druginfo/fdavorinostat) . (docplayer.net)
  • In spite of their structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in control of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • 4 Program in Cancer and Stem Cell Biology, Duke-National University of Singapore (NUS) Medical School, Singapore. (sciencemag.org)
  • Interestingly, nocodazole has been shown to decrease the oncogenic potential of cancer cells via another microtubules-independent mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 plays an important role in cell cycle regulation by decelerating cells progression from G1 phase to S phase, and therefore acts as a tumor suppressor that is implicated in the prevention of cancers, notably melanoma, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer, and esophageal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduction in the division and production of stem cells protects against cancer while increasing the risks associated with cellular senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • On one end, the hypermethylation, mutation, or deletion of p16 leads to downregulation of the gene and can lead to cancer through the dysregulation of cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations resulting in deletion or reduction of function of the CDKN2A gene are associated with increased risk of a wide range of cancers and alterations of the gene are frequently seen in cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homozygous deletion of p16 are frequently found in esophageal cancer and gastric cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other area of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogens are important in cancer research due to their effects on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer is in part defined by a lack of, or failure of, control in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the infected cancer cells are destroyed by oncolysis, they release new infectious virus particles or virions to help destroy the remaining tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was one of the first viruses to be adapted to attack cancer cells selectively, because it was well understood, easy to manipulate and relatively harmless in its natural state (merely causing cold sores) so likely to pose fewer risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutant 1716 lacks both copies of the ICP34.5 gene, and as a result is no longer able to replicate in terminally differentiated and non-dividing cells but will infect and cause lysis very efficiently in cancer cells, and this has proved to be an effective tumour-targeting strategy. (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors will say that the restriction point and the G1/S checkpoint are one and the same, but more recent studies have argued that there are two different points in the G1 phase that check the progression of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The point where mitogens are no longer needed to move the cell cycle forward is called the "restriction point" and depends on cyclins to be passed. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cell progresses through G1, depending on internal and external conditions, it can either delay G1, enter a quiescent state known as G0, or proceed past the restriction point. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Cell cycle and differentiation In vitro experiments using both human and mouse cell lines have shown that EVI1 prevents the terminal differentiation of bone marrow progenitor cells to granulocytes and erythroid cells, however it favors the differentiation of hematopoietic cell to megakaryocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chimeric gene of AML1-MDS1-EVI1 (AME) formed by the chromosomal translocation (3;21)(q26;q22) has also been shown in vitro to upregulate the cell cycle and block granulocytic differentiation of murine hematopoietic cells, as well as to delay the myeloid differentiation of bone marrow progenitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar cell cycle compartments are also recognized by multiparameter analysis that includes measurement of expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin B1, each in relation to DNA content Concurrent measurement of DNA content and of incorporation of DNA precursor 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) by flow cytometry is an especially useful assay, that has been widely used in analysis of the cell cycle in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • flow cytometry
  • Expression of PD-L1 was measured in NK-92 (EBV-negative) and SNK-6 (EBV-positive) cells by western blot, quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2000
  • Cells had been transfected with hCOX2 by Lipofectamine 2000. (cancercurehere.com)
  • The initial work, published in the JCI in 2000, described the method enabling successful attainment of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC). (jci.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. (jci.org)
  • All of these involve erratic cellular development and differentiation in the bone marrow leading to dramatic alterations in the normal population of blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • centriole
  • Centriole duplication occurs only once per cell cycle, thus ensuring accurate control of centriole numbers to maintain genomic integrity. (pnas.org)
  • One centriole originates from the mother cell and the other is replicated from the mother centriole during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, procentrioles begin to form near each preexisting centriole as the cell moves from the G1 phase to the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During S and G2 phase of the cell cycle, the procentrioles elongate until they reach the length of the older mother and daughter centrioles(which takes on characteristics of a mother centriole). (wikipedia.org)
  • segregation
  • The APC/C is the principle target of the mitotic checkpoint, which prevents segregation while chromosomes are unattached to spindle microtubules. (biologists.org)
  • Cdk1 phosphorylation also leads to the activation of the ubiquitin-protein ligase APCCdc20, an activation which allows for chromatid segregation and, furthermore, degradation of M-phase cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Over 30 bispecific molecules are currently in different stages of clinical trials and more than 70 in preclinical phase. (mdpi.com)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • This review focuses on the clinical potential of bispecific antibodies as immune effector cell engagers in the onco-immunotherapy field. (mdpi.com)
  • We summarize current strategies targeting various immune cells and their clinical interests. (mdpi.com)
  • To evaluate the immunological mechanisms associated with clinical outcomes after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), focusing on regulatory T- (Treg) and B- (Breg) cell immune reconstitution, 31 systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients underwent simultaneous clinical and immunological evaluations over 36-month posttransplantation follow-up. (bloodadvances.org)
  • Oncolytic viruses are thought not only to cause direct destruction of the tumour cells, but also to stimulate host anti-tumour immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulators
  • the APC/C is proposed to auto-inhibit by targeting its associated E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme UbcH10 for destruction in late G1, allowing essential cell cycle regulators such as cyclin A to accumulate during S phase ( Rape and Kirschner, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • processes
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system acts like a timer, or a clock, which sets a fixed amount of time for the cell to spend in each phase of the cell cycle, while at the same time it also responds to information received from the processes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The cellular DNA content of individual cells is often plotted as their frequency histogram to provide information about relative frequency (percentage) of cells in the major phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiparameter analysis of the cell cycle includes, in addition to measurement of cellular DNA content, other cell cycle related constituents/features. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concurrent measurement of cellular DNA and RNA content, or DNA susceptibility to denaturation at low pH using the metachromatic dye acridine orange, reveals the G1Q, G1A, and G1B cell cycle compartments and also makes it possible to discriminate between S, G2 and mitotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-harboring lentiviral vectors were transfected into NK-92 cells to examine the correlation between LMP1 and PD-L1 expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most fluorescent DNA dyes (one of exceptions is Hoechst 33342) are not plasma membrane permeant, that is, unable to pass through an intact cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • In this study, we investigated PTTG1 gene and protein expression in MM plasma cells from newly diagnosed MM patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • M-phase inducer phosphatase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC25C gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Microtubules are one type of fibre which constitutes the cytoskeleton, and the dynamic microtubule network has several important roles in the cell, including vesicular transport, forming the mitotic spindle and in cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is important because a doublet of two G0/G1 cells has the same total content of DNA and thus the same fluorescence intensity as a single G2/M cell. (wikipedia.org)